Tutlayt Tajapunit

Tutlayt Tajapunit

Tamazirt : Flag of Japan.svg Japun
Adɣar : Tamazirt n Japun
Amḍan n imsawaln : ~128 imlyunen (2020)
Ism n imsawaln : Ijapuniyn
Tawja : Tutlayin tijapuniyn
Agmmay n tirra : Kanji - Kana - Katakana - Hiragana

Isngal n tutlayt
ISO 639-1 : ja
ISO 639-2 : jpn
ISO 639-3 : jpn
Glottolog : nucl1643

Takarḍa
Japanese dialects-en.png

Tajapunit (日本語 nihongo, (ssfld as)) tga yat tutlayt tasyanit n lqblt. Ar sis sawaln 125 n umlyun n middn, ɣ Japun zwar, tamazirt nna ɣ tga tutlayt tanamurt. Tkcm ɣ twja n tutlayin tijapuniyin-tiryukiyin, d ur nssin mad tucka i tutlayin ann yaḍn. Illa mad isman tutlayin tijapuniyin d tutlayt n Aynu, niɣd tutlayt takuriyt, niɣd tutlayt talṭayit, macc ḥtta yat ɣ tannayin ad ur ttawqbal ɣ dar imusnawn.

Tajapunit ur d tucki ɣ tutlayt tacinwit, waxxa ar ttyara s iskkiln nns.[1] Yan ugḍam mqqurn n umawal ajapuni yucka d ɣ tcinwit. Ar ttyara ula s iskkiln yaḍnin ur gin icinwiyn: ism nnsn Hiragana d Katakana.

Amzruysnfl

 
Yat tasna ɣ uḍriṣ n Manyucu, yan izli aqbur s tutlayt tajapunit.

Aylli ittussan f tjapunit n uzmz aqbur idrus acku ur ta tkcim tirra s Japun zɣ Cinwa.

Tajapunit taqburt nttat ad igan tikli akk iqburn ittussann n tutlayt ad. Azuzzr n ddin n tbudit nttan ad yiwin angraw n tirra acinwi s Japun. Iḍṛiṣn akk iqburn ɣ Japun ttyuran s tcinwit taklasikit, maca iẓḍaṛ ad ttuɣrn s tjapunit s tɣarast n kanbun. Kra n iḍṛiṣn ad gisn laṭṛ n tjṛṛumt tajapunit, zund anmala n tguriwin (amyag dat n uskkin).

Tajapunit n tuẓẓumt (1185-1573) tbḍa f sin: tin uzmz n Kamakura, d tin uzmz n Murumaci. Azmz n Kamakura (1185-1333) ittussan s samuray d tafyudalit. Azmz ad badln gis imslitn: /au/ infl s /ɔː/, d imsli /p/ ikcm zɣ Cinwa.

Tirrasnfl

Amzruysnfl

Tirra tkcm s Japun s talɣa n ungraw n tirra acinwi, zɣ tmazirt n Bakji dat n tasut tiss 5. Lliɣ txla Bakji tɣra Japun i imusnawn n Cinwa bac ad lmdn uggar f ungraw n tirra acinwi. Imusnawn ad zzuzzrn iskkiln icinwiyn ɣ Japun zɣ tasur tiss 7 ar tasut tiss 8.

Ar tssmras tutlayt tajapunit sin ingrawn n tirra:

  • Ikanjitn
  • Ikanatn (gis Hiragana d Katakana)

Iẓḍar yan ad isnfl ikanatn s kra n tmatarin mẓẓinin bac ad fkn imslitn yaḍnin. Llant snat tmatarin: dakutin (゛) d handakutin (゜). S umdya:

Dakutinsnfl

  • か + dakutin = が ga
  • さ sa → ざ za
  • た ta → だ da
  • は ha → ば ba

Handakutinsnfl

  • ha + handakutin = ぱ pa.

Kana (s hiragana d katakana)snfl

 

Amawalsnfl

llan kraḍ iɣbula mqqurnin n umawal ɣ tutlayt tajapunit, yamaṭu kuṭuba (大和言葉) nɣ d wagu (和語), kangu (漢語), d gayraygu (外来語).

Asidf n umawal nna d yuckan ɣ tutlayin n Urupa, gayraygu, ibda d urṭṭal zɣ tabṛṭqqizt ɣ tasut tiss 16. Dffir, ibda uṛṭṭal zɣ thulanḍiyt (ar as ttinin s tjapunit: rangaku, 蘭学) ɣ uzmz n Iḍo. Lliɣ tnnurẓm Japun ɣ uzmz n Miji ɣ tasut tiss 19 ibda uṛṭṭal zɣ tutlayin ad: talimant, tafṛansist d tanglizt. Ɣilad tutlayt tanglizt ad igan aɣbalu izwarn nna yakkan tiguriwin i tutlayt tajapunit.

Tinmlsnfl

Tisdawiyin timqranin ɣ umaḍal as ssaqrant tutlayt tajapunit. Ula kra n tinmal n imẓyanen ar ssaqrant tutlayt ad. Ɣayad ibadl bahra f uzmz dat n uqryan amaḍlan wiss sin, lliɣ ɣar 65 n umirikni issn i ad yara d ad yaqqra d ad irms tutlayt ad.[2]

Isaɣulnsnfl

  1. Deal, William E. (2005). Handbook to Life in Medieval and Early Modern Japan. Infobase Publishing. p. 242.
  2. Sotomayor, Denzel Washington, GE CEO Speak to Graduates.

Ẓr ulasnfl

Ẓr ula Wikipidya s Tajapunit, asamu ilelli