Bariz (s tfransist : Paris), ar as ttinin ula tamdint n tifawin, tga tamaẓunt d tmdint lli akkʷ imqqurn ɣ Fṛansa. Tɣʷi yat tjumma n 105,40 km2 d kra n 2.15 id mlyun n middn ad gis izdɣn.[1] Iɣ nssiḍn ula tisgiwin nns, rad ilkm wuṭṭun n imzdaɣn n Bariz s 10.7 id mlyun n umzdaɣ. Nttat ad igan tamdint nna mi akkʷ tmqqur tnẓẓi ɣ tmdinin n Tamunt Tawruppit, s kra n 20,755 umzdaɣ i yan ukilumiṭṛ amkkuẓ.

Bariz
Paris (tafransist)
Paris - Eiffelturm und Marsfeld2.jpg
Tuẓẓumt n Bariz nna ɣ d ittbayyan Agʷddin n Ifil d La Difuns g ḍaṛat nns.
Ismawn
Ism afransis Paris
Tamssugurt
Tamazirt Flag of France.svg Fṛansa
Tasga Tagzirt n Fṛansa
Tanbbaḍt Anne Hidalgo
Inigl asaway 75001 ar 75020, d 75116
Taraɣrft
Asmɣrf Ayt Bariz
Imzdaɣn 2 187 526 (2017)
Tanẓẓi 20 755 mzdɣ./km2
Akkʷ imzdaɣn 10 784 830 (2017)
Tarakalt
Amsidg 48° 51′ 24″ N, 2° 21′ 07″ W
Tajumma 105,40 km2
Asit n lweb
https://www.paris.fr/

Ar izray wasif n Sinn ɣ tuddurin tiqburin n tmdint n Bariz lli ibṭṭu f sin igzzumn nna ittyussann s Tasga Tafasit d Tasga Taẓlmaḍt. Ssutln as agudi n taganin.

Bariz ad igan tuẓẓumt n tdamsa, tsrtit d tdlsa tafṛansawit. Llant g Bariz kigan n tsnniɣin n tẓuṛi d tuṣkawin timzarayn. Tg daɣ Bariz tuẓẓumt n ustti, tṭṭaf ilmma yat tuṣkiwt tanaddawt ifulkin n umitru.[2] Tṭṭaf ula sin izagʷzn g ugnsu n tmdint. Ittubna yadlli umitru ɣ 1900, d tiɣzi nns ar tlkkm uggar n 200 km.

Tamdint ad dars yat tmamkt igan tagtdlsant, acku 19% n middn lli gis illan uckan d zɣ bṛṛa n Fṛansa.[3] Ilin gis kigan n id rriṣturan ẓlinin s kraygat anaw n tiram. Llan g Bariz imukrisn n tmrkit zun d timrkit n waḍu d timrkit n tifawt.

Tamallaytsnfl

Bariz dars kigan mad takka ɣ tsga ad n tmallayt, ha ṣḍiṣ imdyatn ttyussannin:

  • Agʷddim n Ifil ad igan tuṣka lli akkʷ ittyussann g Bariz, ibna t Gustav Ifil ɣ usggʷas n 1889 s 6,300 ṭunn n wuzzal, ad t igan d 18,000 ugzzum n wuzzal d 2,5 id mlyun n iwqafn. S yat tɣzi n 300 id mitru, tkka tt inn ɣ yan uzmz tga tuṣka lli akkʷ iɣzzifn ɣ umaḍal. Uggar n 6 id mlyun n middn ar t tkkan kraygat asggʷas. Llan kraḍ iswirn nna iẓḍaṛ ad tn ikk umlulluy, walli akkʷ iɣzzifn iga t wiss sin ɣ iggi n wakal.
  • Luvr yat tasnniɣt nna ɣ llan igitn inaẓuṛn iqburn bahra ttyussannin, zun d Muna Liza d Vinus Du Milu. Tettyubna yadlli tuṣka fad ad tg tigmmi i igllidn iFṛansawiyn. Luvr iga tsnniɣt tiss kraḍt lli akkʷ imqqurn g umaḍal, s yat tjumma n 60,000 id mitr amkkuẓ n tdala n ufsar.[4] Nttat ad igan tsnniɣt n tẓuṛi nna d akkʷ tkkan middn s uggar n 5 id mlyun n ufgan lli t id itkkan kraygat asggʷas.
  • Tasnniɣt n Ursay tkka tt inn tga lagar ɣ mad izrin, mac ɣil-ad tga tasnniɣt n tẓuṛi. Tugt n igitn d twuriwin n tẓuṛi n tsnniɣt n Ursay ttyuskarnt ɣ isggʷasn gr 1848 d 1915. Tg tamynut tama n tsnniɣt n Luvr.
  • Azrg Azggʷaɣ iga yan ukabaṛi nna ɣ ttilin agudi n ufṛṛj, iṛẓm tiggura nns ɣ 1889 ɣ yat tuddurt ism as Muntmartr, yat tuddurt ɣ Bariz ittyussann s tudrt n yiḍ . Ɣ Uzrg Azggʷaɣ ar ttḥucnt tmɣarin yan wanaw n uḥwac ar as ttinin Kankan afṛansawi.
  • Asuk n Canzilizi iga asuk lli akkʷ ittyussann ɣ tmdint n Bariz, ig yan ɣ iswak lli akkʷ ttyussanin g umaḍal. Llan gis kigan n idɣarn n wutci d igadazn. Ɣ ttmi nns ar nttafa Lark Du Triyumf.
  • Timzgida tarumit n Nutr Ḍam du Bariz, tga yat tmẓẓalut takatulikt tagutikt imqqurn, lli d ṛẓan g 15 abril 2019. Tlla ɣ tgzirt n La Siti.
  • Bazilik n Sakri Kur tga yat tmẓẓalut takatulikt iwalan i Sakri Kur.

Imzdaɣnsnfl

 
Uṭṭun n imzdaɣn n Bariz (1800-2080)

Ilkm wuṭṭun n imzdaɣn n tmdint n Bariz 2,234,105 n yan g usiḍn n usggʷas n 2009[5]. Iɣʷli s 2,243,833 usggʷas n 2010. Mac yaggug sul f tmsliwt tamzrayt lli ilkm wuṭṭun n imzdaɣn n tmdint ɣ 1921. Lliɣ ilkm wuṭṭun nnsn uggar n 2.9 id mlyun n yan[6]. Zɣ imwuriyn imqqrann nna d isslkmn i wuguz n wuṭṭun n imzdaɣn n tmdint gan tn wuguz mqqurn n waddud n tawja tabarizit, d tmzwagt n imzdaɣn imqqurn s iglagaln n tmdint ɣ isggʷasn n 1960 d 1970. Ggutnt tmntal n tmzwagt ad, tilli xatrnin zgisnt gan tnt uguz n umussu amguran d tattuyt n watign n lkra g tmdint. Ikka tt inn uguz n wuṭṭun n imzdaɣn n tmdint n Bariz yan ɣ willi akkʷ imqqurn g wanaw nns ngr tmdinin n umaḍal; Ayann af tskr tamssugurt n tmdint tuggaz mqqurnin afad ad tḥafḍ f imzdaɣn n tmaẓunt tafransist, tnjḥ ilmma gis. Ayad ad immal usnmkta n yulyuz 2014 lli imlan yat tattuyt bahra istawhmman n wuṭṭun n imzdaɣn i tikklt tamzwarut zɣ 1954, s 2,144,700 n ufgan.

Bariz tga yat ɣ tmdinin n umaḍal nna ɣ bahra imqqur uckukl n imzdaɣn[7]. Ar ittini usnmkta n 1999 mas ar ilkkm uckukl n imzdaɣn n tmdint iɣ ur nssiḍn taganin n Pulunya d Fansn 24,448 ufgan/km amkkuẓ. Ur nẓḍaṛ ad nsmzazal wuṭṭun ad abla d kra n tmdinin mqqurnin n Asya, d ula Manhatan g Nyuyurk. Amma iɣ nssiḍn taganin, rad ig akud ann uckukl n imzdaɣn 20,169 ufgan/km amkkuẓ.[5] S mayad da tgga Bariz tiss smmust ɣ tigrawin tifransisn nna ɣ imqqur uckukl ḍaṛat Lu Pri Sant Jirvih, Fansin, Luvalwa-Pirri d Sant Mandi, ad ur nttu mas tgrawin ad kullu tnt llan ɣ ugns n iwtta n tmdint.

Ɣ usiḍn n Bariz n imzdaɣn ɣ usggʷas n 1999, 19.4% n imzdaɣn luln ɣ bṛṛa n Fṛansa. Zɣ usiḍn ad nit, 4.2% n imzdaɣn n tsga n Bariz taɣrmant kkan tt inn gan imzwagn imaynutn (lli nn izugn gr isggʷasn n 1990-1999), tugt nnsn gan zɣ Asya d Tfriqt. Ddrn kra n 37% n imzwagn lli izdɣn ɣ Fṛansa ɣ tsga n Bariz.[8] Tbda taḍḍanga n uzwag tamaḍlant tamzwarut s Bariz ɣ id simraw n tasut tiss tẓa d mraw s ukccum n ifllaḥn n lalman lli d irwln zɣ tassast n zziraɛa g tmazirt nnsn. Tḍfaṛ t nit taḍḍanga n uzwag yat iggi n tayyaḍ ar ɣ ass ad n iṭalyaniyn, udayn n uruppa tanammast lli d izugn ɣ uzmz n tasut tiss tẓa d mraw. Zɣ akud ann uckan d daɣ irusiyn ḍaṛt tagrawla n 1917, ula ayt Arminya irwln zɣ imnɣi n Arman lli tskr tmazirt n Iɛutmaniyn.[9] Amma g uzmz n imnɣi amaḍlan amzwaru, izuyd daɣ uzwag n imzdaɣn n tmizar llanin ddu usdurri, nnig n aya ipuluniyn ɣ uzmz ngr imnɣan s sin. Mn bɛd uckan d iṣbnyuliyn, iṭalyaniyn, ibrtqqizn d imzdaɣn n tfriqt n ugafa ɣ id smmumraw ar id samraw n tasut ad lli izrin, ḍaṛt n maya yat taḍḍanga n uzwag n ugayn n tfriqt n ugafa ḍaṛt tasimant n tmizar nnsn. Amma ɣil ad, tugt n imzwagn gan zɣ Asya d Tfriqt.[10]

Tamdint n Bariz tga yat tmdint taɛrrimt; zɣ aylli illan ɣ usiḍn n 2008, tkka tt inn tgmiḍi n imzdaɣn n tmdint nna dar ql mn 35 usggʷas 46%. Tagmiḍi ad tzri lmuɛddal anamur lli igan 41.8%.[11]

Asnɣmssnfl

Bariz tga tamazirt n kigan n iɣmisn d tsɣwan, s umdya Lu Mund, Lu Figaru, Libirasyun d Lu Nuvil Ubsirvatur d wiyyaḍ. Ar ttizwurn ɣ yigr n tẓṛigt abarizi iɣmisn n Lu Mund d Lu Figaru, sin ad ayd igan iɣmisn lli akkʷ ittyawssann ɣ Fṛansa.[12] Ɣmk lli s tḥtaḍan Bariz ammas n tsnurayt Frans Priss zɣ tuddma nns asggʷas n 1835[13], nttat ad akkʷ iqburn ɣ wanaw nns ɣ umaḍal[14] [15] d tad akkʷ iqburn ɣ Fṛansa d yat ɣ tisnuray tinɣmas ɣ umaḍal (tama n Rwitrz d Asucitd Priss). Ɣmk lli s tḥtaḍan ula ammas n tbadut n Fṛansa 24 lli iwalan i tnbaḍt tafransist.

Illa ɣ Bariz ula wammas n tbadut n TF1, nttat ayd igan tabadut nna ɣ bahra ttfṛṛajn ifṛansawiyn, nnig n aya agudi n tbadutin yaḍnin, zun d: Fṛansa 2, Fṛansa 3, Fṛansa 4, Fṛansa 5, Kanal Plus, BFM d uggar[16]. Ɣmk lli s tḥtaḍan ula wammas n ṛaḍyu n Fṛansa amaḍlan.[17]

Assaysnfl

 
Abrid Awrerri s uwraɣ, abrid A86 s uẓṛwal d ubrid n Franslyan s uzgzaw.

Tṭṭaf Bariz iẓḍwan n wassay ibuɣlan kigan, s umdya n ibridn n wuzzal, ibrbridn d izagʷzn. Anmallu n Wassay n Tgzirt n Fṛansa (ɣ mad izrin: Anmallu n Wassay Abarizi) ad iɣʷin d nttan ad ittklfn s uẓṭṭa n wassay ɣ tsga.[18] Innuṛẓm uẓṭṭa n umitru g Bariz asggʷas n 1900, nttan ad igan wammak n wassay lli akkʷ ittusmrasn ɣ ugʷns n tmdint s kra n 9 id mlyun n umssudu ku ass[19]. Illa g umtru ad 300 isras (384 n tnqqaḍ n ubddad) d tfggigin ar tlkkm tɣzi nnsnt 214 km, 16 n yizriran gan asn uṭṭunn zɣ 1 ar 14, nnig n aya sin yizriran yaḍnin (3bis d 7bis), d RER ɣd ntta, iga yan uẓṭṭa nna ɣ llan 5 yizriran ifssusn (A, B, C, D, & E) nna ilkkmn s yidɣarn yaggugn f wid zwarnin, yilin gisn 257 n tnqqaḍ n ubddad d tfggigin s yat tɣzi n 587 km.[19] Ɣmk lli s rad stetmrn 26.5 id mlyar n yuṛu ɣ snat tmrawanin lli d yuckan fad ad ssimɣurn aẓṭṭa n umitru ɣ idɣarn d tmnaḍin lli issutln i Bariz.[19]

Tṭṭaf daɣ Bariz aẓṭṭa n tramway nna ɣ llan 4 yizriran: Ar izddi izriri amzwaru gr Sant Dinis d Nwazi Lu Sk, wiss sin ar izray zɣ La Difuns ar Isi-Fal Du Sinn, wiss kraḍ gr Bun Du Ɣaliɣlyanu d Burt Difili, wis kkuẓ zɣ Bundi ar Ulnay-Su-Bwa.[19] Ɣil nit ar ttxdamn ɣ usnflul n sin yizriran yaḍnin.

Llan ɣ Bariz kraḍ izagʷzn igraɣlann: Azagʷz n Carl Du Gul, Azagʷz n Bariz Urli, Azagʷz n Lu Burgit, d ula Azagʷz n Bariz Buvi. Izagʷzn imqqrann gan tn azagʷz n Bariz Urli lli illan g iffus n tmdint, d uzagʷz n Carl Du Gul lli illan g iẓẓlmḍ agmuḍan n tmdint d nttan ad igan ammas n tmssurt n Ir Frans, ig ula yan ɣ izagʷzn lli akkʷ iɛmṛṛn g umaḍal.[19]

Tṭṭaf Bariz aẓṭṭa n ibrbridn lli akkʷ yufn ɣ Fṛansa. Ssutln i tmdint kraḍ yibrbridn: abrid awrerri, lli iḍfaṛn azazu n yiɣrman n wattayn n Bariz n tasut tiss tẓa d mraw ḥaqqan, d ubrid A86 lli illan ɣ unmila agʷnsan, d ubrid n Franslyan lli illan ɣ unmila n bṛṛa. Tamdint ad dars yan uẓṭṭa imqqurn n iɣarasn ilkkmn uggar n 2000 km. iẓḍaṛ yan ad ilkm s Bruksil zɣ Bariz ɣ iggi n wakal ɣ kraḍt tassaɛin, s Frankfurt ɣ ṣḍiṣt tassaɛin, s Barsaluna ɣ snat d mraw tassaɛin, s Lunḍun ɣ snat tassaɛin ɣ talmacint.[19]

Tasga n Bariz tga yat ɣ tsgiwin tifransisn nna bahra issmrasn wassay n waman, ar sis sslkamn ssliɛt. Nɣiy ad nlkm s wasif n Lwar, Rayn, Run, Myus, d Cildt, d nɣiy ad nlkm s isaffn ad zɣ isldayn izdin d wasif n Sinn.

Imjṛitnsnfl

  • 1900 – Urarn Ulampikiyn Wis 2 n Unbdu uqɛan imjṛitn nns ɣ Bariz.
  • 1924 – Urarn Ulampikiyn Wis 8 n Unbdu uqɛan imjṛitn nns ɣ Bariz.
  • 1998 – Akrwas n Umaḍal n tkurt FIFA.
  • 2024 – Urarn Ulampikiyn Wis 33 n Unbdu rad uqɛun imjṛitn nns ɣ Bariz.

Ɣr uggarsnfl

Tisqqan tigraɣlannsnfl

Timdinin tikniwn d tistmatinsnfl

Zɣ ass n 9 abril 1956, ur tgi Bariz tamdint takniwt d ḥtta kra n tmdint yaḍn abla d:

Seule Paris est digne de Rome ; seule Rome est digne de Paris. (s tfransist)
Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; solo Roma è degna di Parigi. (s taṭalyanit)
« Bariz ka ad illan ɣ uswir n Roma ; d Roma ka ad illan ɣ uswir n Bariz. »[20]

Tiɣbulasnfl

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