Tifinaɣ (Asusru amaziɣ: [tifinaɣ]; Niyu-Tifinaɣ: ⵜⵉⴼⵉⵏⴰⵖ; Tifinaɣ n imuzaɣ: ⵜⴼⵉⵏⵗ niɣ ⵜⴼⵏⵗ) iga yan ugʷmmay n tirra ittyusmrasn g tirra n tutlayin timaziɣin[1][2].

tifinaɣ n uzmz azayku g tinzulin
tirra n tfinaɣ n yat tḥanut g lmɣrib.

Tettyuskar yat twafuɣt tatrart n ugʷmmay abldi, ddaw ism Niyu-Tifinaɣ (s tnglizt: Neo-Tifinaɣ) ɣ tasuta tis 20. Ar tettyusmras yat twafuɣt n uskkil abldi, ism nns Tifinaɣ IRCAM, ɣ usslmd n tutlayt tamaziɣt i wazzann ɣ tinmal ula ɣ kra n tẓrigin ɣ Lmɣrib[3].

Tucka-d tguri Tifinaɣ, ɣ tannayt n kra n imrzzutn, zɣ usmzzɣ n tguri “Punicus” talatint s ti- lli igan azwir n wunti amaziɣ[4][5] ; ayann a f irwas is tsnamk “(iskkiln) ifuniqn” nɣ d “iskkiln ibuniqn”. Wiyyaḍ ar snaln yat tsnaẓɣuṛt izdin d umyag “efneɣ” lli isnamkn 'Ara'[6].

Asalasnfl

Ar ttinin imuzayn is d yucka ugʷmmay n Tifinaɣ zɣ ugʷmmay alibi azayku nɣ Alibu-maziɣ (Libyco-Berber), macc amhaz nns ur bahra yuman[7]. Amggaru ad ikka tt inn ar t bahra ssmrasn imssiwln n tutlayt Tanuimidt nɣ Talibit taqburt, nna f ur nssin amr kra idrusn, ɣ tfriqt n ugafa. Asala n ugʷmmay ad ur ittwassan s tmyimant. Kra n imrzzutn annin is ila kra n tsqqnt d ugʷmmay Afuniq[8]. Ur ittwassan wakud ɣ d ibayn ugʷmmay alibu-maziɣ, macca ur rad yizwur ifḍ tamzwaru dat n tlalit[9]. Inɣuba ugʷmmay ḍart n walik aɛṛab i tmazɣa ɣ tasuta tiss 8, yamẓ ugʷmmay aɛṛab adɣar n igʷmmayn Alibu-maziɣ d Ulatin[10].

Ttwassannt snat tmzarayin nns: tagumḍant d tutrimt. Tkka tt inn tagmuḍant ar tettusmras ɣ mad igan ɣil ad Qusṭanṭina d tsga n Wawṛas ɣ Ddzayr d Tuns. Nttan a mi ifsi usntl uggar n tmzarayin yaḍn acku ufan t mnnawt tkkal ɣ umnid n usuɣl s Tbuniqt. Zɣ 1843, fsin imrzzutn asntl n 22 zɣ 24 n iskkiln. Tutrimt tga tamnzut uggarn, tṭṭf 13 n uskkil uggar, ig usayrar zɣ Lqbayl tatrart ar Tigzirin n ukanari adɣar g tt inn tkka tettusmras gis.

Ikka tt inn ugʷmmay Alibu-maziɣ iga abjad azddag (ur ar ittzmmim iɣritn). Tussda ur ar tettuzmmam. Ɣ umata, ar ittyura zɣ izddar s uflla, maccan ar nttafa zɣ ufasi s uẓlmaḍ d wiyyaḍ ula nttni[11].

Tifinaɣ n imuzaɣsnfl

Agʷmmay Alibu-maziɣ ar ittyusmras ass ad s talɣa n Tfinaɣ ɣ tirra n tutlayin n imuzaɣ lli igan zɣ waragg amaziɣ n twja tafṛusyawit. Ttyufan issmrsn imzwura n ugʷmmay ad f kra n tẓuriwin n iẓaggn ɣ mmnaw imḍlan zun d win tgellidt tamazaɣt Tin Hinan[12].

Inna M.C.A. Mac Donald is gan imuzaɣ yan wamun amiwan ɣ iskar umsawaḍ amiwan d tmktit kullu tisɣanin lli tskar tiɣri d tirra ɣ wamun aggag... Tifinaɣ ar bahra ittusmras ɣ tsurarin d igraffitn d tuzinin gzzulnin."

Kra n tikkal, ittusmras ugʷmmay ɣ tirra n kra n tutlayin taddjaṛin zun d Tagdal lli igan zɣ twja yaḍn mi ism "Ṣungay".

Asnmarrasnfl

 
tirra n tfinaɣ qdmnin ɣ usit n inɣutn n iẓran n intdnni nna yaẓn i tmdint n ssuq ɣ mali

Ar tmmal twlaft ɣ uzlmaḍ mmnawt tlɣiwin n iskkiln. Mqqar tga tussda timlicant ur ar tettuzmmam ɣ Tfinaɣ. Iggut ma ɣ ar ittmun uskkil t, +, d uskkil nna t iḍfrn ifk anɣ asmsl (ligature).

Azmz azaykusnfl

Afiniq Rhvaf Tifinaɣ n ccaq
  ʾ
  b  
  g  
  d  
  h  
  w  
  z  
   
   
  y  
  k  
  l  
  m  
  n  
  s  
  ε
  p,f  
   
  q  
  r  
  š  
  t  
 
j  


Iskkilnsnfl

Wid ad igan iskkiln n tfinaɣ abldi d tfinaɣ atrar:

Yunikud Tuniɣt Tasisklt Talsarit Ism
Alatin GMG (IPA)
U+2D30   a æ ya
U+2D31   b b yab
U+2D32   b β yab amryan
U+2D33   g ɡ yag
U+2D34   g ɣ yag amryan
U+2D35   dj, ǧ d͡ʒ yadj n ugraw amaziɣ
U+2D36   dj, ǧ d͡ʒ yadj
U+2D37   d d yad
U+2D38   d ð yad amryan
U+2D39   yaḍ
U+2D3A   ðˤ yaḍ amryan
U+2D3B   e ə yey
U+2D3C   f f yaf
U+2D3D   k k yak
U+2D3E   k k yak n imuzaɣ (Twarg)
U+2D3F   ⴿ k x yak amryan
U+2D40   h
b
h


b

yah
= yab n imuzaɣ
U+2D41   h h yah n ugraw amaziɣ
U+2D42   h h yah n imuzaɣ
U+2D43   ħ yaḥ
U+2D44   ʕ (ɛ) ʕ yaʕ (yaɛ)
U+2D45   kh (x) χ yax
U+2D46   kh (x) χ yax n imuzaɣ
U+2D47   q q yaq
U+2D48   q q yaq n imuzaɣ
U+2D49   i i yi
U+2D4A   j ʒ yaj
U+2D4B   j ʒ yaj n Uhaggar
U+2D4C   j ʒ yaj n imuzaɣ
U+2D4D   l l yal
Yunikud Tuniɣt Tasisklt Talsarit Ism
Alatin GMG (IPA)
U+2D4E   m m yam
U+2D4F   n n yan
U+2D50   ny nj yagn n imuzaɣ
U+2D51   ng ŋ yang n imuzaɣ
U+2D52   p p yap
U+2D53   u
w
w yu
= yaw n imuzaɣ
U+2D54   r r yar
U+2D55   yaṛ
U+2D56   gh (ɣ) ɣ yaɣ
U+2D57   gh (ɣ) ɣ yaɣ n imuzaɣ
U+2D58   gh (ɣ)
j
ɣ


ʒ

yaɣ n Ayr
= yaj n Adrar
U+2D59   s s yas
U+2D5A   yaṣ
U+2D5B   sh, c (š) ʃ yaš (yac)
U+2D5C   t t yat
U+2D5D   t θ yat amryan
U+2D5E   ch, č (tš) t͡ʃ yatš (yač)
U+2D5F   yaṭ
U+2D60   v v yav
U+2D61   w w yaw
U+2D62   y j yay
U+2D63   z z yaz
U+2D64   z z Tawellemet yaz
= Harpoon yaz
U+2D65   yaẓ
U+2D66   e e ye (APT)
U+2D67   o o yo (APT)
U+2D6F   +ʷ ʷ Tamatart n uganculwiɣ
≈ <super> 2D61
Isinskiuln
Yunikud Tuniɣt Tasisklt Talsarit Ism
Alatin GMG(IPA)
U+2D5C U+2D59    ⵜⵙ ts t͡s yats
U+2D37 U+2D63    ⴷⵣ dz d͡z yadz
Yunikud Tuniɣt Tasisklt Talsarit Ism
Alatin GMG(IPA)
U+2D5C U+2D5B    ⵜⵛ ch (tš) t͡ʃ yatš
U+2D37 U+2D4A    ⴷⵊ dj d͡ʒ yadj
Tasaurt n ikʷlan
Tifinaɣ Tasilant (IRCAM)[13] Tifinaɣ Tamiriwt (IRCAM)[14] Iskkiln n tfinaɣ yaḍnin Iskkilen itrarn n imuzaɣ

unikudsnfl

Tetturna tfinaɣ g yunikud g Mars 2005, d wufuɣ n wis 4.1.

Afarra (bloc) n Tfinaɣ g yunikud iga t: U+2D30–U+2D7F.

TifinaɣOfficial Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+2D3x ⴿ
U+2D4x
U+2D5x
U+2D6x              
U+2D7x                               ⵿  

Ẓr ulasnfl

Isaɣulnsnfl

  1. Interview met Karl-G. Prasse. Archived.
  2. Penchoen, Thomas G. (1973). Tamazight of the Ayt Ndhir. Los Angeles: Undena Publications.
  3. Ameur, M., & Iazzi, E. (2006). Graphie et orthographe de l'amazighe. Rabat: Institut royal de la culture amazighe, Centre de l'aménagement linguistique.
  4. Penchoen (1973:3)
  5. O’Connor, Michael (1996). "The Berber scripts". In William Bright; Peter Daniels (eds.). The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 112–116.
  6. D. Vance Smith. "Africa's ancient scripts counter European ideas of literacy". Aeon. Retrieved 2021-06-24.
  7. M.C.A. MacDonald (2005). Elizabeth A. Slater, C.B. Mee and Piotr Bienkowski (ed.). Writing and Ancient Near East Society: Essays in Honor of Alan Millard. T.& T.Clark Ltd. p. 60. ISBN 9780567026910.
  8. Suleiman, Yasir (1996). Language and Identity in the Middle East and North Africa. Psychology Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-7007-0410-1.
  9. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, p. 129
  10. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, p. 129
  11. "Berber". Ancient Scripts. Archived from the original on 2017-08-26. Retrieved 2022-03-06.
  12. Briggs, L. Cabot (February 1957). "A Review of the Physical Anthropology of the Sahara and Its Prehistoric Implications". Man. 56: 20–23. doi:10.2307/2793877. JSTOR 2793877.
  13. "Polices et Claviers Unicode" (s tutlayt fr). IRCAM. http://www.ircam.ma/fr/index.php?soc=telec&rd=3. 
  14. P. Andries, Proposition d'ajout de l'écriture tifinaghe. Organisation internationale de normalisation, Jeu universel des caractères codés sur octets (JUC). ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2 WG, vol.2, p.2739R, 2004.