Numidyainumidn (s tlatint: Numidia) tkka tt inn tga yat tgldit tamaziɣt tqburt, tlla ɣ ugafa utrim n tfriqt n ugafa, g tuddma tumẓ ikalwin da issnin Ddzayr tatrart maccan ḍarat ilkm yan uzmz, tmqqur gis alliɣ tlkm ad tamẓ aylli igan dɣil Tuns d Libya d kra n igzzumn zɣ Lmɣrib. Ibḍa yadlli ungraw asrtan "Massylii" ɣ ugmmuḍ d "Masaesyli" ɣ utaram. Ɣ Imnɣi Abuniq Wis Sin (218-201 D.T), Inra ugllid n "Massylii", Massinisa, Sifaks n "Masaesyli" bac ad ismun Numidya ad tg yat tgldit. Tagldit ad tssnta am uwanek ilelli yaɣul ilmma ɣ yan wakud ar ittmlillay gr waddad n tmnaḍt taṛumant d waddad n uwank uḍfir Aṛumi.

Amzruysnfl

Tasimantsnfl

Ar aqqran imaratn imzaryn igrikn i mddn ad s yism "Νομάδες" (i.g. Irḥḥaln), lli yaɣuln "Numidae" s ufasr alatin[1]. Maccan amẓlay g umzruy, Gabriyil Kamp, igr nn turda f tannayt ad, ikk tasga n usala awfriq n yirm[2].

Tikklt izwarn ad d ibayn yism ad tlla ɣ dar Pulibyus (tasuta tis snat D.T.) bac ad isskn imdann d ikaliwn ɣ utaram n Qarṭaj nna ɣ gan ikaliwn n ugafa n Dzayr ar asif n Mulucha (Muluya) lli yagan d Wahṛan sg unẓul kra n 160 Kilomitr[3].

Kkan tt inn inumidn bḍan f snat tqbilin tixatarin: Massyili ɣ Numidya tagmuḍant d Masaysyli ɣ utaram. Ɣ wussan n ugzzum amzwaru ɣ Yimnɣi Abuniq Wis Sin, kkan tt inn Massyli n ugmuḍ, ddaw ugllid nnsn Gala, llan g tuṛfa d Qarṭaj lliɣ tt inn kkan Masaysyli, ddaw ugllid nnsn Sifaks, llan g tuṛfa d Ṛuma. Tssimɣur tgldit n Masaysyli iwutta nns ddaw Sifaks aylliɣ tumẓ sɣ wasif n Muluya ar asif n Rhuml[4].

Maccan ɣ 206 D.T., iskr ugllid amaynu n inumidn igmuḍann Massinisa tuṛfa d Ṛuma, immatti Sifaks s tsga n Iqrṭajn. Ɣ tgira n umnɣi, fkan iṛumann lli inran Numidya s timmad nns i Masinissa, agllid n Massyli[5]. Lliɣ rad immt ɣ 148 D.T., akal n Masinissa yumẓ sɣ Muluya ar uwttu n wakal n Qarṭaj, yamẓ ula anẓul agmuḍan nns ar Brqa bac ad kullu tssutl Numidya i Qarṭaj (Applan, Punica, 106) slid ɣ dar yilel[6]. Nnig n uya, lliɣ ittyamaẓ ugllid Sifaks ɣ Lmɣrib atrar ɣ tga Tingis tamaẓunt nns, yaɣul Bukkar iga uḍfir yakkan tankkist i Massinisa. Izzri Massinisa iwtta n tgldit nns i yidrarn n Waṭlas s ikaliwn n Igaytuliyen (Gaetuli) d Fzzan dɣ nttni.

Tlkm d Massinisa g 179 D.T. yat tdri n wurɣ nna as uznn imzdaɣn n Dilus acku yuzn asn tanawt iktarn s imndi. Iskr yan zɣ Imzdaɣn n Dilus yan usfris n Massinisa ɣ Dilus d yan kra tirra f uẓru am usnimmr i ugllid. Ttyuskarn ifrisn i tarwa nns dɣ nttni g tgzirt n Dilus, iskr ugllid n Bitini, Nikumidis dɣ nttan afris i Massinisa[7].

Ḍarat n tmttant n ugllid Massinisa ɣ wattayn n 148 D.T., ikkusa iwis Mikiwsn tanbaḍt. Llig immut unggaru ad g 118 D.T., kkusan tarwa nns, Himbsal Amzwaru d Adrbaɛl d wayyaw nns bṛṛa n yiwl, Yugrtn, lli bahra ḥmln Inumidn. Ḍart n tmttant n Mikiwsn, inɣa Yugrtn Himbsal, aylli t iglin s imnɣi d Adrbaɛl[8].

 
Agllid Anumid Massinisa

Amnɣi d Ṛumasnfl

Lliɣ tlkm 112 D.T., issnta daɣ Yugrtn amnɣi nns d Adrbaɛl. Ildi d f yixf nns urfan n Ṛuma lliɣ inɣa kra n id bab n twuriwin Iṛumann lli ittawsn I Adrbaɛl. Ḍarat n yan umnɣi gzzuln d Ṛuma, yull Yugrtn acnyal umlil, tfk as Ṛuma yat tmyaqqant n tnagrit lli as bahra iɣudan, aylliɣ d akkʷ daɣ tssnkr ackki n tmasaɣt. Ittyuɣra i unbbaḍ adɣran aṛuman afad ad ibdd mnid n tsnbḍayt f tumliwin n ugufsu lli fllas isrs ufna nns asrtan Gayus Mimmyus. Sbzzizn f Yugrtn dɣ nttan ad nn yack s Ṛuma afad ad ifk tugga nns mgal anbbaḍ aṛuman. Akud ann ad tettyukkas watig i tugga n Yugrtn acku ibayn d umzru nns ukriḍ d wugnid, urdun ilmma is d nttan ad inɣan afna nns Anumid.

Issnta umnɣi gr Numidya d Tgdudant Taṛumant, mmatin mnnawt tgrummawin s Tafriqt n ugafa ddaw n tmmuɣra n uqunsu Kwintus Kaykilyus Mitilus Numidikus. Lliɣ yanni Gayus Maryus, agnsas n Mitilus, is iɣzzif umnɣi ig zun iɣ rad jjun ur ismid, issṛmi t uylli yanni, yurri s Ṛuma ar isiggil ad ittusta d ig aqunsu. Lliɣ ilkm aylli ira, yurri daɣ s Numidya afad ad indh amnɣi s yixf nns. Yuzn ilmma Akwaystur (Quaestor) Sula s taddjart Mawriṭanya afad ad sbddn tannalt nnsn i Yugrtn. S twisi n Bukkus Amzwaru, yumẓ Sulla Yugrtn, isslkm amnɣi s trnnawt ɣ tgira. ittyawi Yugrtn s Ṛuma ɣ tyffart, srsnt ɣ Tulyanum[9].

Sakn iṛumann Yugrtn iswak ɣ usfuglu s trnawt n Gayus Maryus, nɣin t ilmma ɣ 104 D.T[10].

Tagldit ibḍansnfl

 
Yuba I

Ḍart n tmttant n Yugrtn, ittyurna ttmi n utaram n Numidya i yikalln n ugllid n Muriṭanya, Bukkus Amzwaru[11]. Isul usagur n tgldit ddaw tnbaḍt n igldunn n tmazirt. Lliɣ immut ugllid Gawda ɣ 88 D.T., irwas is tettyubḍa tgldit f sin igzman, yat tgldit tagmuḍant mqqurn, d yat tgldit tutrim imẓẓiyn f ultmas. Igllidn n ugmuḍ ar ssnfluln iqariḍn, win utaram ur jjun nufi winnsn. Imkn is tt inn kkan igllidn utrimn ar akkan tukkist i yigmuḍann[12][13].

Ismd umnɣi uɣrim gr Kaysar d Pumiy tilit n Numidya tarmagult ɣ 46 DT[3]. Tettyufka tgldit tutrimt gr isaffn n Sava (Asif n Summam) d Ampsaga (Asif n Lkbir) i Bukus Wis sin, taɣul tgldit tagmuḍant d tasga taṛumant. Aylli d yagurn zɣ tgldit tutrimt d tmdint n Kirta izzri yan uzmz gzzuln g ila tanbḍimant ddaw Publyus Sityus. Taɣul daɣ tgldit tutrimt taqburt ddaw tnbaḍt n ugllid anumid Arabyu lli inɣan Sityus yawi adɣar nns. Isskcm iɣf nns g yimnɣitn uɣrimn iṛumann, aylli t isslkmn i ad ittyunɣa[14].

Igllidn n Numidyasnfl

Igllidn n Numidya tutrimtsnfl

Reign Incumbent Notes
ante 215 BC to 202 BC Sifaks  
202 BC to ? BC Vermina  
? BC to ? BC Archobarzane  

Igllidn n Numidya tagmuḍantsnfl

Reign Incumbent Notes
? BC to ? BC Zelalsen
208 BC to 207 BC Gala  
207 BC to 206 BC Ozalces  
206 BC to 206 BC Capussa  
206 BC to 206 BC Lacumazes  
206 BC to ?202 BC Massinissa  

Igllidn yaḍn n Numidyasnfl

Reign Incumbent Notes
202 BC to 148 BC Masinissa Hitherto king of Western Numidia
148 BC to 118 BC Micipsa  
148 BC to 145 BC Gulussa  
Mastanabal  
118 BC to 117 BC Adherbal  
Hiempsal I  
Yugrtn  
117 BC to 112 BC Adherbal  
117 BC to 105 BC Yugrtn
105 BC ar 88 BC Guda  
88 BC to 60 BC Hiempsal II  
60 BC ar 46 BC Yuba I  
46 BC ar 30 BC Roman Republic Suzerainty  
30 BC to 25 BC Yuba II  

Post-Independencesnfl

From the end of the Kingdom, Numidia was ruled by the following powers:-

 
Muritanya d Numidya

Izdayn n bṛṛasnfl

Ẓṛ ulasnfl

Isaɣulnsnfl

  1. Numida d Nomas
  2. Camps, Gabriel (1979). "Les Numides et la civilisation punique". Antiquités africaines (in French). 14 (1): 43–53. doi:10.3406/antaf.1979.1016.
  3. 3,0 et 3,1 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Numidia" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 868–869.
  4. History of Humanity: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D. Sigfried J. de Laet, Joachim Herrmann UNESCO,
  5. Idjouadiene, L., Mostefaoui, T.A., Djermoune, H. et al. XRF analysis of ancient Numidian coins: a comparison between different kingdoms. Eur. Phys. J. Plus 136, 512 (2021).
  6. Historical Dictionary of Morocco Aomar Boum, Thomas K. Park Rowman & Littlefield
  7. Itineraria Phoenicia - Edward Lipiński
  8. Sallust (c. 40 BCE), Jugurthine War XI–XIII.
  9. Telford, Lynda (2014). Sulla: A Dictator Reconsidered. Pen and Sword.
  10. Connolly, Peter; Gillingham, John; Lazenby, George (2016). The Hutchinson Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval Warfare. Routledge. p. 171.
  11. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Numidia" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 868–869.
  12. Duane W. Roller (2003), The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene: Royal Scholarship on Rome's African Frontier, New York: Routledge, p. 25.
  13. Gabriel Camps (1989) [published online 2012], "Arabion", Encyclopédie berbère, 6: Antilopes–Arzuges, Aix-en-Provence: Edisud, pp. 831–34,
  14. Gabriel Camps (1989) [published online 2012], "Arabion", Encyclopédie berbère, 6: Antilopes–Arzuges, Aix-en-Provence: Edisud, pp. 831–34,