Tutlayt Tamaziɣt Tamzwarut

Tutlayt tamaziɣt taqqburttamaziɣt tamzwarut (s tanglizt: Proto-Berber, Proto-Libyan) tga yat tutlayt tazaykut, nttat a zɣ d ffɣnt tutlayin timaziɣin lli iddrn ass ad. Tkka tt inn tga yat tutlayt tafrusyawit, ayann a f gant tutlayin timaziɣin lli d zgis ffɣnin istis n ɛmmis n tutlayt tamiṣrit d tutlayin tikuciyin d tutlayin tisamiyin d tutlayin titcadiyin d tutlayin tumuṭiyin.[1]

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Tutlayt Tamaziɣt Tamzwarut
Ingaln n tutlayt
ISO 639-3

Amzruy

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Tṭṭaf tutlayt Tamaziɣt Tamzwarut kra n tɣawsiwin nna ur illin ɣ tutlayin tifrusyawiyin yaḍnin, macc tutlayin timaziɣin n ɣil ad mmrwasnt bahra ɣ ingratsn. Tbayn d tutlayt tamaziɣt tamzwarut ɣar 3000 isggʷasn aya mqqar tbḍa f Tutlayin tifrusyawiyint gr 9000 d 10,000 n isggʷasn aya. Iɣ d-nucka ad nẓṛ mad tettini tussna n usmzazal n tutlayin d umzruy[2], rad imassann nnan mas tzri tutlayt ad f sin tikliwin n tmhazt, ad tn igan[3]:

  • Tamaziɣt tamzwarut 1 (PB1) nna yumann kra n 7000 n isggʷasn aya.
  • Tamaziɣt tamzwarut 2 (PB2) tad tga illis n (PB1), d nttat a ɣ d uckant akkʷ tutlayin timaziɣin lli sul illan ɣil-ad.

Ɣ tasut tis 30 dat n tlalit n Ɛisa, bḍan middn lli sawalnin s tmaziɣt tamzwarut ɣ tfriqt n ugafa gr Lmɣrib d Miṣra. Ɣ tasut tis 10 dat ad iggz Ɛisa, ijṛa yan ttawassuɛ yaḍn nttan ad aɣ iskrn ma mi nttini ɣila igdudn imaziɣn lli nn izmmimn ɣ dar irumiyn. Ijra ttawassuɛ iggʷran ɣ yifḍ d kra ḍart Ɛisa, lliɣ nnucgn imuzaɣ nɣ itwargiyn lli yumẓn ɣila tanzruft imqqurn n tfriqt lli mi nttini Ṣṣaḥra.[4]

Allas n tuṣka

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Allas n tuṣka n iẓmuẓẓal iqqburn n tmaziɣt ibidd f usmzazal d tutlayin tifrsyawanin yaḍnin ɣ mnnaw iẓmuẓẓal, ibdd daɣ f usmzazal gr timzarayin n tutlayin timaziɣin titrarin[5] nɣ d tmacaɣt nna igan, ɣ tannayt n kra n imrzutn zun d Prasse[6], tamzarayt lli bahra yaryn timẓlay n tmaziɣt tamzwarut.

Tasnmslit

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Ɣ wallas n tuṣka n Kaṛl G. Pras d Martn Kuṣman, tamaziɣt tamzwarut kkan tt inn dars kraḍ iɣritn gzzulnin /ă/, /ĭ/, /ŭ/ d kkuẓ ɣzzifnin /ā/, /ī/, /ū/ d /ē/. Tugdutin nnsn ɣ tmaziɣt tatrart:

Tugdutin n iɣritn n Tmaziɣt Tmzwarut ɣ tmaziɣin titrarin[7]
*Tamaziɣ

Tamzwarut

Taẓnagt Tamacaɣt /

Taɣdimst

Tamaziɣt n

ugafay

ă ă ə
ĭ ə ə
ŭ ə ə
ă a a
ĭ e i
ĭ i i
ŭ u u

Tṭṭaf Tɣdimst d Tmacɣt yan uɣri yaḍnin /o/ nna irwas is iga tazzigzt zɣ /u/ s tmsasit n uɣri ɣ Tmacɣt, tkk d *aʔ ɣ Tɣdimst.

Tirgalin

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Da ittals Kuṣman tuṣka i trgalin n Tmaziɣt Tamzwarut:

Anaw Ancucan Uglan/Adluglan imḍfṛ-udlugl./

Anɣan

Ulwiɣan Ilḍṭan Agranzazan
Arsitan Ankara Arsitan Attwancuc
Unzir m n̪ː
Aggaɣ

t̪ː

d̪ː

d̪ˤ d̪ːˤ c?

ɟ?

cː?

ɟː?

k

g

ɢ ʔ
Amryan f

β

s̪ː

z̪ː

z̪ˤ z̪ːˤ
Aznaɣri j dʒ: w gːʷ
Imidis l̪ː
Asmamay r̪ː

Mkda iga lḥal g tmaziɣin titrarin, tugt n trgalin n tmaziɣt tamzwarut ṭṭafnt tugdut tamsasit tussidt, gin imslitn *β d *ʔ islidn waḥdu tn.

Ɣ amant trgalin *ɟ d *g ẓlint g kra n tutlayin tijanatin:

Tamaziɣt

Tamzwarut

Tam. Taɣd. Tarif. Tacnw.
g ɟ ʒ ʒ
*g g ɟ y g

Ɣmk ann d kra n *c n Tmaziɣt Tamzwarut lli ittggan k ɣ kra n tutlayin ur ginin n Tijanatin, ig š ɣ Tjanat (maca llan mnnawt tugdutin tirluganin).

S umdya, căm "kmm (unti asuf)" ar ittaɣul šəm. (Asnfl ad ar ittjṛu ɣ Tnfust d Tsiwit dɣ nttnti).

ɣ tutlayin Timaziɣin tigmuḍanin:

  • dˤ → tˤ

*-əβ ɣ tmaziɣt taqqburt yaɣul d -i ɣ Tjanat (Taznatit)[8]. S umdya, *arəβ "ara" ar ittaɣul ari. (Asnlf ad ar ittjṛu ɣ kra n tmzarayin n waṭlas anammas, slawant akkʷ tantala n Iẓiyyan, ɣ Infusn d Tsiwit.)

Ɣar Taɣdimst d Twilant ka ad yaryn afunim n tmaziɣt tamzwarut *β am β[9]; Ɣ tmaziɣin yaḍnin, ar tettaɣul h nɣ tafuḍ.

Ẓṛ uggar

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Tinidlisn

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  • Allati, Abdelaziz (2002). Diachronie tamazighte ou berbere (en francés). Publications de L'Universite Abdelmalek Essaâdi. p. 296. ISBN 9981-61-015-1.
  • Blench, R. (2006). Archaeology, language, and the African past. Rowman Altamira. p. 361. ISBN 0-7591-0466-2.
  • Boukouss, Ahmed (2009). Phonologie de l'amazigh. Institut Royal de la Culture Amazigh. p. 445. ISBN 9954-28-019-7. Archivado desde el original el 26 de noviembre de 2013.
  • Ehret, Christopher (1995). Reconstructing Proto-Afroasiatic (Proto-Afrasian): vowels, tone, consonants, and vocabulary. University of California Press. p. 557. ISBN 0-520-09799-8.
  • Heath, Jeffrey (2005). A grammar of Tamashek (Tuareg of Mali). Walter de Gruyter. p. 745. ISBN 3-11-018484-2.
  • Heine, Bernd; Derek Nurse (2000). African languages: an introduction. Cambridge University Press. p. 396. ISBN 0-521-66629-5.
  • Kossmann, Maarten (2001a), «L'origine du vocalisme en zénaga de Mauritanie», en Ibriszimow, Dymitr; Vossen, Rainer, eds., Etudes berbères, pp. 89-95
  • Kossmann, Maarten (2001b), «The Origin of the Glottal Stop in Zenaga and its Reflexes in the other Berber Languages», Afrika und Übersee 84: 61-100
  • König, Christa (2008). Case in Africa. Oxford University Press. p. 343. ISBN 0-19-923282-2.
  • Prasse, Karl G. (1972-1974). Manuel de grammaire touarègue (tăhăggart) 3. Copenhagen.

Izdayn n brra

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Isaɣuln

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  1. Abdl Aziz Alati (2002). Diachronie tamazighte ou berbere (s tfransist). منشورات جامعة عبد المالك السعدي. p. 296. ISBN 9981-61-015-1.
  2. Militarev, A. (1984), "Sovremennoe sravnitel'no-istoricheskoe afrazijskoe jazykoznanie: chto ono mozhet dat' istoricheskoj nauke?", Lingvisticheskaja rekonstrukcija i drevnejshaja istorija Vostoka, Moscow, pp. 3–26, 44–5
  3. Louali & Philippson 2003, "Les Protoméditerranéens Capsiens sont-ils des protoberbères ? Interrogations de linguiste.", GALF (Groupement des Anthropologues de Langue Française), Mrrakc، 22-25 Cutanbir 2003. ↑
  4. Heine 2000, p. 292.
  5. Galand, L. 1988, "Le berbère" in Les langues dans le monde ancien et moderne, III, les langues chamito-sémitiques, ed. by Jean Pierrot & David Cohen, Paris, éditions CNRS, 207–242.
  6. Prasse, Karl-G. 1973–74. Manuel de grammaire touarègue (tahaggart). Copenhague: Akademisk forlag.
  7. Kossmann, Maarten (2001a), "L'origine du vocalisme en zénaga de Mauritanie", in Ibriszimow, Dymitr; Vossen, Rainer (eds.), Etudes berbères, pp. 89–95
  8. See also Maarten Kossmann, "Les verbes à i finale en zénète" Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine", Etudes et Documents Berbères 13, 1995, pp. 99–104.
  9. Kossmann 1999:61.

Ɣaylli sis izdin

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Tutlayin Timaziɣin
Tutlayin Amzray Tamaziɣt taqburt†,LB
Gwanc Tagwancit
Agmuḍ Tawilant · Tasuknit · Taɣdimst · Tazrgt · Tanfust · Tasiwit
Agafa Tajnat Aṭlas Anammas AgmuḍanSṬ (Ayt Sɣruccn · Ayt Warayn) · Tanzruft Tagafayt (Tagurart · Tumẓabt · Tamaziɣt n unẓul n Wahran d Figig · Tidiklt · Tuwat · Tugurt · Tagargrnt) · Tarifit · Tijanatin tigmmuḍanin n Lmɣrib · Ayt Iznasn · Ayt Snus · Tacawit · Tazwarit TatunsitSG (Tajṛbit · Tamaziɣt n Maṭmaṭa · Tasndit · Tawilult) · Tutrimt Tadzayrit (Taclfit · Tacnwit)
Ur igin tijanatin Tamaziɣt n waṭlas (Aṭlas Anammas · Llisan Al-ɣarbi · Taɣumarit · Taṣnhajit n Srayr · Taclḥiyt) · Taqbaylit
Tinawayin Tamaziɣt Tanawayt Tamɣribit · Tamaziɣt Tanawayt Tadzayrit
Twarg Tamahaq · Tamacq · Tawllammt · Tayart
Anẓul Utrim Tatsrrt · Tuẓẓungiyya
Agmmay Agmmay n Tifinaɣ · Agmmay Alatin · Agʷmmay Amaziɣ Aɛṛab · Tirra taɛibrit
Timrsal Unbiḍ AAAL (Dzayr) · SNM (Dzayr) · SGSM (Lmɣrib) · DNAFLA (Mali) · CRB (Fransa)
Ur gin unbiḍ Agraw imaziɣn (GM) · Agraw Amaḍlan Amaziɣ (GMM)
SG Ar tzray s ugmuḍan· SṬ Ar tzray s Waṭlas · Tutlayt inɣuban · LB Tettyalsbna
 
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