Tutlayt Taclḥit

Tutlayt tamaziɣt

TaclḥiytTaclḥitTasusit (s tirra n tifinaɣ: ⵜⴰⵛⵍⵃⵉⵜ, s tirra n taɛrabt: تشلحيت) tga yat tutlayt tamaziɣt illan ɣ lmɣrib, middn li sis isawaln gan Iclḥiyn. nttat ad igan tutlayt tamaziɣt tamzwarut ɣ wuṭṭun n imssiwln d turrut n udɣar arakal nna tumẓ gr timaziɣin tigafayin, llan gr 8 ar 10 id mlyun sis isawaln. [2]

Tettusawal Tclḥit ɣ Sus, Iḥaḥan, Lḥuz n Mṛṛakc d kra n tsggʷin yaḍnin asn d iwalan. Tumẓ tutlayt taclḥit zɣ Taṣṣurt ɣ ugafa ar Agʷlmim ɣ unẓul ar Warzazat ɣ ugmuḍ. Mac ar tt inn nttafa tlla ula ɣ timdinin mqqurnin n Lmɣrib zun d Tigmmi Tumlilt (kaẓa), d Ṛṛbaḍ d Sla.

Tkka tt inn tclḥiyt ar tettyura s uskkil aɛrab, ilin sis kigan n warratn iclḥiyn. Ɣ isggʷasn ad ggʷranin issffɣ d usinag agldan n tussna tamaziɣt (IRCAM) anaw amaynu n tifinaɣ ar as tinin Neo-Tifinaɣ ntta ɣila a s tt ttaran willi as ssnin. Macc askkil alatin ad bahra ittusmrasn, slawan akkʷ g wantirnit.

Taclḥiyt kcmn tt tguriwin tiɛṛabin macc tẓḍaṛ ad tg tutlayt tamaziɣt tagafayt g akkʷ drusnt tguriwin turḍilin zɣ tɛṛabt.

Ismsnfl

Tikklt tamzwaurt (nna nssn) ɣ tettubdar tguri a ɣ kra n udlis tga tt ɣ udlis n Luis del Mármol Carvajal nna yura f tfriqt, inna gis aya: « [...] dans Maroc et dans toutes les provinces de cet Empire, aussi bien que parmi les Numides et les Getules qui font vers l’occident, on parle la langue africaine pure, qu’on nomme Chilha et Tamazegt, noms fort anciens. »[3]. s taclḥit: « [...] Ɣ Lmɣrib ula ɣ tisgiwin akkʷ n Umnkud ad, ula gr Inumidiyn d Igituln lli d ikkan tsga n utaram, ar sawaln yat tutlayt tafriqt tazddagt, nna mi aqqran Cclḥa d Tamazigt, ismawn ad iga iqburn bahra. ». Maṛmul da ittini is gan ismawn ad s sin iqburn macc ur dars ma s rad inbḍ f uwtay n yism. Talɣa n yism Ccelḥa tbayn is tga taɛṛabt, aya a f ur nẓḍaṛ ad nawi abdar ad am wanẓa is yad illa ism ad ɣ tutlayt n ayt unẓul amɣribi.

Aẓɣuṛ n yism "Aclḥiy" nɣ "Taclḥiyt" ur fllas illi umsacka, ilint mnnawt tannayin ɣ yimrsi ad. Amzwaru ad irar ixf i tsnaẓɣuṛt n tguri iga t ufṛansis William de Slane ɣ usggʷas 1856. Zɣ aylli ittyussann ɣ akud ann inna is d yucka ism ad zɣ tguri "Acluḥ" (Aamgut: Iclaḥ) lli isnamkn axyam ittyuskarn zɣ wazbaln n ulɣʷm (s tfṛansist: ...mot dérivé du nom berbère achlouh, au pluriel ichlah, qui signifie tente de poil de chameau.)

Ɣ 1905, iffɣ d Auguste Mouliéras s yat tannayt infln s imikk f tin umzwaru: "(Acluḥ) iga yat tgrtilt ittusgaddan s waẓẓmay, tuga n uwri (Esparto) nɣ d tiznirt, taqburt, icrrgn..." (s fṛansist: “natte en jonc, en alfa ou en palmier nain, vieille et déchirée”)[4].

G tannayt n Van Den Boogert, gant tsnaẓɣuṛin ad timrditin[5]. Ɣ mad iẓlin s tmzwarut, ibayn d is nit tlla tguri "Acluḥ" s unamk n "agiṭun" mac ar tettusmras ɣar ɣ tsgiwin n tqbaylit (Dzayr). Nnig n aya, Anamk amzwaru n tguri "Acluḥ" (mgt: iclaḥ) d aẓṭṭa n taḍut iḥṛcen (s tfṛansist: "étoffe grossière en laine"), d unamk "Axyam" iga ɣar asinan[6].

Amara aliman Johann Wetzstein issfra is iga uẓɣuṛ n tguri "Cluḥ" aɛṛab: "[...] Le nom schulûḥ signifie : “gueux, canailles de voleurs et de meurtriers”. [...] Ce mot désigne, dans la langue la plus ancienne, une longue branche d’arbre, et aujourd’hui encore, au Liban, une forte branche, tant sur l’arbre que coupée, se nomme schilḥ , pluriel schulûḥ . On transpose l’image sur des hommes rudes, grossiers, et à Damas on dit : “Levez-vous, vous êtes couchés là comme schulûḥ el-arab, des gourdins de bédouins.” Plus largement schilḥ signifie le voleur, ainsi qu’on le rencontre souvent dans les 1001 Nuits "[7]. Kra n isggʷasn ḍart, rad yals Hans Stumme i tiẓiṛt ad[8]. Mac, illa mad yannin is ur igi amẓlan ad nsiggil irm iẓlin s tɛṛabt tantalayt tamɣribit ɣ tɛṛabin tintlayin n ugmuḍ anmmas acku anamk n tguriwin zɣ uẓuṛ [CLḤ] naḥya t kigan gr tutlayin tiɛṛabin.

Wiss kraḍ ad ifk tannayt nns d amara angliz Robert Cunninghame Graham ɣ 1898[9]. Inna fllas maya: "Shillah is the Arabic name for the Southern Berbers, i.e. of the Atlas and the Sahara; Shluoch, in Arabic, means “cast out,” and Shillah, the “cast out folk.” The Shillah call themselves Amazeight, i.e. the noble people. This difference of opinion as to nomenclature has been observed in other nations. […] The Arabs use neither the word “Tamazirght” nor the word “Berber,” but call the Berber tribes “Shillah,” that is, the “outcasts”; the verb is “Shallaha” and the term used for the speech Shluoch".[9]

Kra n imrzutn d imaratn nnan is tga taguri taɛrabt d is tga tsnamk "imxxarn", maccan ɣ tsga yaḍn wiyyaḍ ar ttinin is tga tamaziɣt, zun d Muḥammad Aqdim, lli innan ɣ yan umgrad nns, mas d ism n "Cluḥ", ɣ tillawt, iga ism aẓɣuṛan nna fkan imzdaɣn n Lmɣrib, imṣmudn ɣ waṭlas mqqurn ɣ tisgwin n Mṛṛakc, tamazirt n Sus d waṭlas mẓẓiyn i yixfawn nnsn. Ɣ Tclḥit, amyag "Iclḥ" ila anamk n izdɣ bdda, zun iɣ tnnit "staqqṛ"[10]. Ɣaya ad aɣ yakkan mas d ism n Cluḥ" iga tt middn lli d istaqṛn. Inna ula ɣ tirra nns is ur igi amẓlan ad nsiggl anamk n tguri ad ɣ imawaln n tutlayin yaḍnin[9].

G tannayt n Ṛacid Agrur, ixṣṣa ad zwar nqrru is d taguri taɛṛabt ad d nttnɛimil, ur d tamaziɣt, maccan ad tt nsiggil ɣ tɛṛabt taklasikt izgl. Ixṣṣa ad tt nsiggl ɣ tɛṛabt tantalant tamɣribit lli igan yat tutlayt iddrn, ittnfaln d tizi s unmgal n tɛṛabt taklasikt. Ɣ tɛṛabt tamɣribit ur llin kra n irimn yaḍn s uẓur "CLḤ" amr wid izdin d imaziɣn, aya ar immal is d taguri ad ijṛa as unfal imsisli zɣ /r/ s /l/ (rhotacisme). Amyag "Crrḥ" isnamk inciser, disséquer, iwa ɣ walln n imslɛṛabn, acku ar gis ttfhamn ɣar kra n imikk n tguriwin turḍilin, "Cclḥa" tga yat tutlayt taɛṛabt ibbin, ittugzzarn, ifrɣn aylliɣ ggamin ad sul gis fhmn kra[11].

Tuddma "a-" ɣ Aclḥiy tga azwir nna nẓḍaṛ ad naf ɣ tugt n tguriwin ticlḥiyin, ar nttafa azwir ad ɣ tutlayin timaziɣin s tɣarast ad nit, d s tutlayin tifrusyawiyin s tɣarasin yaḍn yaẓn i umaɣnu nɣ talɣa ad. Tagara n -iy (itturḍal-d zɣ uḍfir aɛṛab -iyy) ad ismuttgn ismawn d ifrisn. Llan ula kra n timzarayin yaḍnin ddu talɣa n Aclḥay d Taclḥayt, s tgara n -ay ɣ udɣar n -iy ddu iḍiṣ n targalt lli t id izwarn [12]. Amagut n Aclḥiy iga t Iclḥiyn ; ama ism nns unti iga t Taclḥiyt, amagut Ticlḥiyin. Amma s ddarija nɣ taɛrabt tamɣribit, amsiwl amay iga Ccəlḥ, amagut Ccluḥ, d tutlayt Ccəlḥa,[13] tawafuɣt tawtmant n Taclḥit.

Ɣ warratn iqqburn n tutlayt Taclḥit, ar nttafa mas tkka tt inn tutlayt tṭṭaf yism n TamaziɣtTamazixt. S umdya, amara imqqurn Awzal (tuddma n tasut tis-18) isawl f nnaḍm n Tmazixt ann ifulkin.[14]

Acku tmazirt n Sus a ɣ bahra ggutn imsiwln n tutlayt ad, illa mad issmrasn ism Tasusit (tutlayt n Sus) fad ad isawl f tutlayt Taclḥiyt. Amsiwl amay iga Asusiy, amagut Isusiyn, d yism unti Tasusiyt, amagut nns Tisusiyin.

Amḍan n imsiwlnsnfl

 
Tigrawin n tmazirt n Lmɣrib nna ɣ ttuysawaln Taclḥit dar uggar n uzgn n middn.     +90% n imzdaɣ     +50% n imzdaɣ

Ar ass-ad ur illi kra n uṣiḍn igaddan ittuyskarn f imsiwln n tutlayin timaziɣin ɣ tmazirt n Lmɣrib. Ɣ usit n Ethnologue, ɣ tẓrigt tis 17-20 (2014-2017) ibdr usit ad mas d amḍan n imsiwln nna d ifka uṣiḍn n Lmɣrib n usggas 2014, ar ittini mas isklm umḍan n imsiwln n tutlayt Taclḥit kra n 4 id mlyun lli igan 13% zɣ imzdaɣn n tmazirt. Amma ɣ tẓrigt tis 21 nns (2018), inna Ethnologue mas llan 7 id mlyun ɣ usggas n 2016 (war uɣbalu) lli igan 20% zɣ imzdaɣn. Iɣ nenna mas d tin 2016 ad iṣḥan, aṣiḍn n Lmɣrib n usggas 2014 islki bahra amḍan n imsiwln, acku icqqa nit ad tamnt masd tɣlid tigmiḍi n ismiwln n tutlayt ad s 7 tnqqiḍin gr 2014 d 2016. Ar ittini uṣiḍn lli ittuyskar ɣ 2016 mas d umḍan n imsiwln n taclḥit ɣ Lmɣrib iga 5 id mlyun lli igan 14% zɣ imzdaɣn[15], Macc tugt n middn ibayn asn umḍan ad ur izdi d lwaqiɛ d mas d amḍan imqqur bahra f wad lli d nnan[16].

Kra n iɣbula yaḍn ar daɣ akkan yan umḍan bahra imqqurn f walli yad nbdr, Stroomer (2001a) iqddr is llan «gr 6 d 8 id mlyun» n imsiwln, s ɣik ad (2008) isslkm amḍan ad s «kra n 8 ar 9 id mlyun».[17] Stroomer ur ifki awd yan uɣbalu nna f ibna asutg nns.

Mqqar d amḍan n imsiwln n tutlayt taclḥit, slawann akkʷ irgazn, ar sawaln Taclḥit d Ddarija ula nttat, ur illi awd kra immaln mas d taclḥit ka tutlayt iddrn tettusmigl ɣ imal. S tmntilt n tmrniwt tudrift n umḍan n imzdaɣn n Lmɣrib ɣ isggʷasn ad ggʷranin (zɣ 12 id mlyun ɣ 1961 ar uggar n 33 id mlyun ɣ 2014), nẓḍaṛ ad nini mas d Taclḥit ass a sis isawal uṭṭun akkʷ imqqurn g umzruy nns.

Tantalayinsnfl

Tantlayin ɣ ugns n tutlayt taclḥit ur jjun d nttnti ad tt inn ikkan gant imrsi n kra n usnubbc ɣ mad izrin, macc mnnaw n iminagn nnan mas d imsiwln n tantlayin kullu tnt n tutlayt taclḥit ẓḍaṛn ad myarmasn. Walli akkʷ izwarn iga Stumme, lli inẓan is d kulci imsiwln ufan ad rmsn ingrat sn, "acku tintlayin timdanin n tutlayt nnsn ur tnt bahra naḥya."[18] Mayad nit ad isddid mass Ḥmad Bukus, yan usnils amɣribi d umsiwl s tutlayt Taclḥit, lliɣ inna: "tṭṭaf Tclḥiyt yat tamunt tamdrut lli d ittajjan iclḥiyn ad sawaln d ingratsn bla awd kra n tmukrist, zɣ tmazirt n Iḥaḥan ɣ ugafa utrim ar Ayt Baɛmran ɣ yiffus utrim, zɣ Wactukn ɣ utaram ar Iznagn ɣ ugmuḍ, d zɣ Aqqa ɣ tiniri ar Tassawt ɣ uzaɣar n Mṛṛakc."[19]

Ur llin iwtta ibaynn mzyan gr tantalayin n tutlayt taclḥit d tantalayin n tamaziɣt n Waṭlas anammas. Azrig lli d isfrraqn gr tutlayin ad s sin illa ɣ kra mani gr uzgig llid ittawin zɣ Mṛṛakc ar Zagura, macc ar tinnin masd tqbilin n Iɣujdamn, Igliwa d Ayt Wawzgit walan i Tclḥiyt, d tiqbilin tiddjarin nnsn Inultan, Infdwak d Imɣran walan i tamaziɣt n Waṭlas anammas.

Angraw n tirrasnfl

Zun d tutlayin timaziɣin yadnin, Taclḥiyt ar tettyura s mnnaw igʷmmayn, macc agʷmmay amaziɣ-alatin ad bahra ittusmrasn ɣ tirra. Ama igʷmmayn iɛṛabn ar tn bahra nttafa ɣ tmzgadiwin tiqburin dar willi ɣranin ɣ skayl timslmin. Ɣil llan midn lli ittaran s ugʷmmay n tifinaɣ.

Agmmay n Tifinaɣsnfl

  Imgradn lli sis iẓlin : Agmmay n Tifinaɣ
 
Yat lblaka taman tamdint n Tiznit tettyura s Taɛrabt, Tafransist d tutlayt Taclḥit s iskkiln n Tifinaɣ.

Uran imzwura tamaziɣt s iskkiln n tfinaɣ d iskkiln n tɛṛabt d iskkiln n tlatinit maca ɣ usggʷas n 2003 iskcm usinag agldan n tussna tamaziɣt tifinaɣ ɣ uslmad n tmaziɣt; tdwl tifinaɣ tunṣibt ɣ umrruk.

Agmmay Talatinitsnfl

Agmay n Talatint gis sin wanawn:

Agmmay alatin amaziɣsnfl

  Imgradn lli sis iẓlin : Agemmay alatin n tmaziɣt

Agmmay amaziɣ alatin nɣ Agmmay alatin n tmaziɣt nɣ akk Tamɛmmrit iga yan ugmmay alatini ittiwskar fad ad sis nttara tutlayin timaziɣin n ugafa zun d taclḥit, tarifit, taqbaylit d tacawit d wiyyaḍ zɣ isggʷasn 1840 Agʷmmay Amaziɣ Alatin iṭṭaf 23 iskkiln Ilatiniyen d 10 isekkilen yaḍn. Yiwi-d ugmmay ad ism n Tamɛmmrit, tajmilt i Mulud Mɛemmri, nttan ad tn iɛdln.

Assmrs n ugʷmmay a ar t bahra nttafa dar wid iɣran tamaziɣt g tsdawin d dar kra n imɣnasn nna isnubbucn ɣ tmsnilst tamaziɣt. Kigan n idlisn iclḥiyn itrarn ttyaran is-s, niẓḍiṛ ula ad t-naf ɣ trubba n faysbuk d isitn n iclḥiyn.

Agmmay alatin afransissnfl

Agʷmmay a ad issmras umata n ugdud ɣ wanṭirnit d itilfunn acku nttat a mi ssnn zɣ tɣri nnsn i tutlayt tafṛansist g tinmal. Tusi d tamakt ad n itrra ilugnn nns zɣ tfṛansist (s umdya: /c/ = ch, /ɣ/ = gh, /x/ = kh, atg) maca ur tṭṭif ilugnn ibiddn f msasan midden, ayad a f ar nttafa ku yan manmk dars tga.

Agmmay Taɛrabtsnfl

Uran imḥḍaṛn n timzgadiwin n unẓul n lmɣrib s ugʷmmay aɛṛab, illin idllisn d arratn s iskkiln ad .

Tasklasnfl

  Imgradn lli sis iẓlin : Taskla Taclḥit
 
Adlis n Muḥmmad Awzal s Tclḥit s uskkil aɛrab

Yuwi d uslmad Ɛumaṛ Affa lli igan aslmad ɣ tsdawit n Ṛṛbaṭ dffir isnubbucn lli iga f usntl "amzruy n warra amaziɣ s uskkil « aεṛab »" mas iga Umṛṛuk s umata ansa i uskkir n warratn s tutlayin tamaziɣin s tmzarayin nns akkʷ swa ɣ Sus nɣ d Laṭlas nɣ d Rrif irnu isslkn ɣ yat tinawt iga tt usinag agldan n tussna tamaziɣt ɣ 2003 mas d Sus ad igan tansbaɣurt uggar s wanaw ad n warratn. Aya yuwi t id, mk lli inna, wansa arakal lli illan dar tsga ad lli tt yujjan ad taggug f iḍiṣn inadafn aylli tt yujjan ad tḍuf kigan n uzug anutlay d unamun d udmsan d usrtan.

Awttas zɣ warratn lli skrn iclḥiyn n zikk ur igi tutlayt taclḥit s yixf nns macc d ad sslkmn tussna tasgdant i ugdud amaziɣ lli ikkan ur da ittakʷz taεṛabt, aya isfaw t mas amata ɣ warratn ad aɣn d iskkinn n usgd swa ɣ yigr n usumd nɣ ɣ yigr n uflas nɣ ɣ yigr n tikli n wasr nɣ isfra lli t ittalɣn, issuman t awd acku ur snzgumn imaratn ad s wanaw n tirra d ur srisn kra n ilugnn i usnmarra amaziɣ.

Kra n imdyatn zɣ warratn aɣ d yuwḍn :

  • Asuɣl n udlis Al anwar assunnyya fi lkalimat assunnyya « Tifawin tisunniyin ɣ tguriwin tisunniyin » i Muḥammad ug Aḥmad u Juzayy Aɣṛnaṭi s tmaziɣt n Sus.
  • Arra  « Tafukt n ddin » i Ɛli u Hmad ug Iliɣ , adlis ad iga yat tmdyazt ɣ llant mraw n yifḍn n tiwnt .

Yuwi d uslmad Affa ɣ tinawt nns uttay n 25 n warra ttyaranin s tutlayt taclḥit, irnu uslmad ad mas d arrantn lli ittyamaẓn ɣ Uṛubba ttwaḥḍan ɣ Iks Un ɣ Rufans ɣ Fṛanṣa.

Zɣ warratn imaziɣn igan izaykutn lli ittyaskarn s tmaziɣt « Kitab al-asma » (Adlis n ismawn) lli igan yan usgzawal (msmun awal) amaziɣ aεṛab ittuɣuln s tasut tiss 12 n tlalit, ittyaskar usgzawal ad ɣ 1146 dat n tlalit, yara t u Tunart lli iluln ɣ 1085 dat tlalit immt ɣ 1172 (ur igi u Tumrt Amuwḥḥidi), tili ɣ warra ad 2500 n tguri tamaziɣt lli ɣ amunt 250 n wassaɣn n imɣayn, ig usgzawal ad yan zɣ isgzawaln akkʷ iqbrn ɣ umaḍal. Kkuẓ n warratn ad ufan n udlis ad, kraygat yan gisn ur irwas wayyaḍ. Munn kullu ɣ yan warra ig win tasut tis sat d mrawt ar tis snamrawt. Gan s kkuẓ itsn win umara Ibn Tunart. Tiss kkuẓt, talli akk gisn istawhman, gis uggar n 2.500 n ukccumn iɛrabn d usuɣl nnsn s taclḥit. Ikccumn ad smunntn ɛla ḥsab imrsi nnsn (tazzit n ufgan, imudar n tgmmi, imɣi ...).

Zɣ kullu tutlayin timaziɣin n ɣilad, ɣwalli akk iqrbn irwasn tamaziɣt taqburt tazaykut nna s yura Ibn Tunart adlis nns tga tt Taclḥit. Mayad ar itbayyan mzyan ɣ iwaliwn d tguriwin n umawal ad acku llan gisn kra n tguriwin nna ur aɣ tn tafat abla ɣ tutlayt taclḥit d ur llin ɣ tutlayin timaziɣin yaḍn, zun d: Aɣwy, Afulkiy, Asid, Tigmmi, Idgam d Dar.

D llan daɣ kra n iwaliwn ɣ udlis ad nna ur llin ɣ taclḥit n ɣilad, wala ɣ tutlayin timaziɣin yaḍn, zun d: Kasra (ɣar), Wala (bahra), Aysladd (abla).

Isnubbucn imzwurasnfl

Tikklt tamzwarut lli ɣ rad ittyura uglam n tjṛṛumt n tutlayt Taclḥit tga tt twuri n umsnils aliman Hans Stumme (1864–1936), lli d issffɣn adlis nns Handbuch des Schilḥischen von Tazerwalt ɣ usggʷas n 1899. Tɣama-nn tjṛṛumt n Stumme aɣbalu n jṛṛumt n tutlayt Taclḥit lli akkʷ imqqurn i uzgn n tasut. Tamukrist lli s tinn ikkan ɣ ammas n igi nns iga tt asmrs n talsarit timsislit bahra icqqan, nna ittyskarn fad ad tg tamnɣudt, macc ur ar tlkkam ɣ tugt n twal ad tsml kra n usmdya amssusaɣ n imuɣna ittuysawaln. Isfɣ d Stumme ula yat tlknsit n tinfusin n Taclḥit (1895, ittuysnfl gis kra ɣ Stroomer 2002).

Amara wissin lli rad isawl f tutlayt ad iga tt Saɛid Sid Kawi (Saʿīd al-Sidqāwī, 1859-1910), amsiwl n yat zɣ tutlayin timaziɣin n Dzayr. Issffɣ d ɣ wakud ann yan umawal n Twarg (1894), ilmma yurri dar tutlayin timaziɣin n tmazirt n Lmɣrib. Amawal nns Dictionnaire français-tachelh'it et tamazir't (1907) gis agudi n iwaliwn s tutlayt taclḥit d tmaziɣt n waṭlas anammas, d uggar n 20 tiwriqin n tiwinas ubɣirn. Arra ad ibayn is ittuyskar s yat tɣarast igan taddraft, iqqan d ad ittyuɣra s tɣḍft.

Di yiḍ n imnɣi amaḍlan amzwaru, tbayn d yat tdlist timskrt mẓẓiyn ittyuran s ifassn n yan ukapitan (mn bɛd rad yaḍu akulunil) Léopold-Victor Justinard (1878–1959), s uzwl Manuel de berbère marocain (dialecte chleuh). Ar gis nttafa ubckil anjṛum igzzuln, yat tlknsit n tinfusin, n tmdyazt d umarg, d kra n imsawaln bahra istawhman, kullu tn munn d usuɣl nnsn. Ittyura udlis ad ɣ tizi lli ɣ tt inn ikka umara isala timhal tiɛṣkṛiyn ɣ tsga n Fas, imikk dffir usdurri afransawi (1912). Yura Justinard ula mnnaw n idlisn izdin d umzruy n tmazirt n Sus.

Emile Laoust (1876–1952), tamarat takffaḍt lli yuran kigan n idlisn d imgradn izdin d tutlayin timaziɣin, tssffɣ d ɣ 1921 adlis nns Cours de berbère marocain (taẓrigt tis snat tettusmɣur g 1936), gis aslmd n tjṛṛumt d timssirdin itcqqun imikk a s imikk d iwaliwn isgumann, iḍṛiṣn ifulkin (ur lan usuɣl) d yat talgamt n tguriwin.

Isbuɣla bahra Edmond Destaing (1872-1940) tussniwin n umawal n taclḥit s udlis nns Etude sur la tachelḥît du Soûs. Vocabulaire français-berbère (1920) d udlis n Textes berbères en parler des Chleuhs du Sous (Maroc). Inna Destaing mas rad iswuri ɣ yan usnubbc izdin d tajṛṛumt taclḥiyt, macc xtad iggʷran ur rad jjun tẓṛ tufawt.

Issffɣ d akumunḍun Robert Aspinion adlis n Apprenons le berbère: initiation aux dialectes chleuhs (1953), lli igan yan udlis islmadn tajṛṛumt tanɣmast, mac ur trwi ukan yan imikk. Tilsaritin rxan macc gan imnɣad n Aspinion ḥidn ingrawn imsislitn d ifransawiyn iqdimn.

Ama Tikklt tamzwarut lli ɣ rad gis ittyuskar uglam s tutlayt tanglizt iga tt Outline of the Structure of Shilha (1958) n umara amirikani Joseph Applegate (1925–2003). Iswuri f wawal n imsiwln n ayt Sidi Ifni, ittyura udlis s yat tmamkt ur bahra iḥlin nna s icqqa ad t sis tɣrt, abla yan umawal lli d ibayn mzyan. Tirsalitin lli gis illan ur bahra msackan d wawal n taclḥit yɛni ur tettuyskar mzyan.

Adlis waḥdu t nna ɣ tlla tjṛṛumt n tutlayt Taclḥit d nna ittyuran ddu usati asnils atrar iga tt Le Berbère (1988) n umara Lionel Galand (1920–2017), asnils afṛansis d umsnils amẓṛmaziɣ. Amara ad ixdm kigan ɣ udlis nns f wawal n ɣccan ɣ idrarn n waṭlas mẓẓiyn, iskr asn ula asmzazal d tqbaylit n Dzayr, d tatwargit n Nijr.

Tasnmslitsnfl

Iɣritnsnfl

Tutlayt Taclḥit tṭṭaf kraḍ iɣritn imslicann, nna ɣ tiɣzi ur tgi aṣḍḍaṛ imsfru. Ar mmaln iɣritn yat lgamme igan abaraw bahra n imslinyen. Aɣri /a/ art bahra tnṭaqn s [a] nɣ [æ], d /u/ tettuynṭaq bla awd kra n ukrnay anmɣur abla iɣ tettrs taman kra n w. Tilit n kra n targalt afarign da tɣr i asufɣ imslmms uggar n uɣri, zun d ɣ tguri n kraḍ [krɐdˤ], kkuẓ [kkɤzˤ], sḍis [sdˤɪs] (smzazal at yan [jæn], sin [sin] d smmus [smmʊs] )

Adffiran Anammas Adffran
Urgil i u
Imldi a

Ar d tbayyan kra n iɣritn imslicann yaḍnin ɣ iwaliwn imaynutn lli d ikkan tutlayin yaḍnin, s umdya / o / zun d ɣ rristora "restaurant" (n tfransist).

Iɣritn inkliyn d « schwa »snfl

Abla kraḍ iɣritn imslican ad, llan kra n iɣritn inkliyn ur gin imslican, nna s ttussan s yism n "schwa". Ɣ tugt n imdyatn, aɣri n tukkit ar nttiẓḍur ad as nssld dffir tuddma n kra n tafirt war aɣri CC nɣ CCC, iɣ tga yat ɣ tirgalin timawayn, nɣ sin itsn, ttuyssladn[20], s umdya tigemmi [tigĭmmi], ameḥḍar [amɐ̆ʜdˤɐr]. Ɣ ammas n twuri n tilsaritin timsislitn lli d skrn Stumme (1899) d Destaing (1920, 1940), tugt n iɣritn inkliyn ad ttyumlan.

kra n imaratn yaḍnin dffir mayad zun d Aspinion (1953), sxddmn tamatart ⟨e⟩ fad ad ṛcmn adɣar nna ɣ ittuẓḍar ad gis ttusflad kra n uɣri n tukkit, mknna tga taɣara nns, d ar ttaran ula ⟨e⟩ nɣ ɣ tilawt awd yan uɣri, mqqar akk tad igzzuln, ur aɣ tettuysflad. S umdya akessab [akssæb] nɣ ar icetta [ar iʃtta]. Tamatart ⟨e⟩, ar as ttinin "schwa", zun d talli d isxdm Aspinion d wiyyaḍ yaḍnin, tuɣal d anagraw awnɣan ka ittuysxdamn fad ad iml masd targalt lli t iḍfarn tlla ɣ tuddma n tafirt: [ak⟨e⟩s.sab], [a.ri.š⟨e⟩t.ta]. Mklli s iẓṛa Galand, Asnqḍ n «schwa» ikka d «tamyurt tabṛṛanit n Taclḥit». D mk lli s t daɣ imla s tɣarast yaḍn Ridouane (2008), iɣritn inkliyn nɣ «vocoïdes intrusifs» ur akk imkin ad asn nfk aẓayr n aɣri apanṭatik. Ilmma yuf ad akk ur nttara iɣritn inkliyn d « schwa », d ad nttara iɣritn s tamamkt igan timsislit, mk lli nit iskr Galand (1988) ɣ tiẓrigin kulltn n iḍṛiṣn imaynutn.

Asmkl n hyatussnfl

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Tirgalinsnfl

Tṭṭaf tclḥiyt 33 n trgalin timslicanin. Tṭṭf tirgalin timsnkrin (“Tuffayin”) d trgalin tuglanin tirsitanin zun d tutlayin timaziɣin yaḍn d tɛṛabt. Illa unuḥyu gr uraran ittwancucn d ururan udrizn irsitann. Tussda n trgalin tga tanmyẓlayt.

Tafliwt ddaws da tmmal tirgalin s tlsarit talatint tanawayt. Ɣinna g ur tmsasa tlsarit d usnmarra n IPA rad tafim tamzwarut gr taskiwin.

Ancucan Uglan Imḍfṛ-udlugl Unɣan Ulɣiwan Ilḍṭan Ankaran Agranzazan
arsitan ankaran arsitan attwancuc arsitan attwancuc
Anzran m n
Aggaɣ arimɣr t ⟨ṭ⟩ k q
imɣr b d ⟨ḍ⟩ g
Ameryan arimɣr f s ⟨ṣ⟩ ʃ ⟨š⟩ χ ⟨x⟩ χʷ ⟨xʷ⟩ ʜ ⟨ḥ⟩
imɣr z ⟨ẓ⟩ ʒ ⟨ž⟩ ʁ ⟨ɣ⟩ ʁʷ ⟨ɣʷ⟩ ʢ ⟨ɛ⟩ ɦ ⟨h⟩
Aznaɣri l ⟨ḷ⟩ j ⟨y⟩ w
Asmamay r ⟨ṛ⟩
Asnmarra
alatin
Azal
asnmsli (IPA)
Aglam s tnglizt
m m voiced bilabial nasal
n voiced dental nasal
t voiceless dental stop
t̪ˤ voiceless pharyngealized dental stop
k k voiceless prevelar stop
voiceless labialized prevelar stop
q q voiceless uvular stop
voiceless labialized uvular stop
b b voiced bilabial stop
d voiced dental stop
d̪ˤ voiced pharyngealized dental stop
g ɡ voiced prevelar stop
ɡʷ voiced labialized prevelar stop
f f voiceless labiodental fricative
s voiceless dental fricative
s̪ˤ voiceless pharyngealized dental fricative
š ʃ voiceless postalveolar fricative
x χ voiceless uvular fricative
χʷ voiceless labialized uvular fricative
ʜ voiceless epiglottal fricative
z voiced dental fricative
z̪ˤ voiced pharyngealized dental fricative
ž ʒ voiced postalveolar fricative
ɣ ʁ voiced uvular fricative
ɣʷ ʁʷ voiced labialized uvular fricative
ɛ ʢ voiced epiglottal fricative or approximant
h ɦ voiced glottal fricative or approximant
l voiced dental lateral approximant
l̪ˤ voiced pharyngealized dental lateral approximant
y j voiced palatal approximant
w w voiced labial-velar approximant
r voiced dental trill
r̪ˤ voiced pharyngealized dental trill

Iznaɣritnsnfl

Iznaɣritn /w/ d /y/ lan imsliḍn inaɣritn u d i gr trgalin (C_C) d gr trgalin d tirisa (C_# d #_C). S tmamkt immrwasn, ẓḍaṛn iɣritn urgiln /u/ d /i/ ad ilin imsliḍn uraglann w d y bac ad anfn i tilɣit. Aya a f llan, ɣ umata n tantlayin[21], ɣ yan ubṭṭu ansmad d iɣritn urgiln, iznaɣritn ittilin am 'Onset' nɣ 'Coda', d iɣritn urgiln am 'nucleus' ɣ kra n tfrit. Abṭṭu ad ajumman n iznaɣritn d iɣritn urgiln da irggs aẓayr nnsn am kkuẓ ifunimn nna naḥya, ilin akkʷ kra n imsnilsn lkmn gis ad kksn aẓayr imslican i /w/ d /y/[22].

Assumr f kkuẓ ifunimn is sbzziznt fllaɣ iznaɣritn d iɣritn urgiln lli ẓḍaṛnin ad jṛun ɣ yan usartu, ɣ yan unmala amẓli n umawal, s umdya tazwdit, tahruyt (ur d *tazduyt, *tahrwit). Nnig n aya, iznaɣritn /w/ d /y/, zun d tirgal yaḍnin, ar ttiɣzifn, zun ɣ afawwu, tayyu[23]. Turda n kkuẓ ifunimn ar aɣ takka ula yan uglam imṛwi n tsnalɣa[24].

Tussda d tiɣzisnfl

illa umyẓli gr trgal tifrdisin d tarfrdisin (ilan tussda nɣ iɣzzafn):

tuga vs. tugga
tamda vs. tamdda

Tussda d usɣzf ar tturarn yan tilalt ɣ tsnalɣa n ismawn d imyagn:

agllid, igldan (ll da tetturruy l)
imgr, ar imggr (g da tetturruy gg)

S umnzay, kraygat targalt tẓḍaṛ ad tili tussda nɣ asɣzf, mqqar xxʷ d ṛṛ ur jjun as nufi tugga (unattested). Ar ttilin iggaɣn ilḍṭann ɣar g tussda nɣ asɣzf (qq, qqʷ)[25].

Kkuẓt trgal, tṭṭaf ku yat gisnt sin igdazaln ussidn, yan saswa t, yan naḥya t (ɣ tmsislit):

: ḍḍ d ṭṭ
w: ww d ggʷ
ɣ: ɣɣ d qq
ɣʷ: ɣɣʷ d qqʷ

Ɣ tarayt taqburt akkʷ n tsnalɣa, ar bdda nttafa is d ṭṭ, ggʷ,qq, qqʷ ad igan igdazaln ussidn nɣ iɣzzafn n , w, ɣ, ɣʷ:

ɣrs, ar iqqrs (smzazal d kzr, ar ikkrz)
izwiɣ, izggʷaɣ (smzazal d isgin, isggan)

Tuṣkiwt n tafirtsnfl

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Anawn n tifirinsnfl

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Imitriknsnfl

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Tajṛṛumtsnfl

Ismawnsnfl

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Ismawn infliciynsnfl

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Ismawn ifliciynsnfl

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Ismawn ibṛṛaniynsnfl

Afrux isawaln s taclḥit.

Kra n tguriwin nna d ikkan tutlayt taɛrabt d kra n tguriwin nna mrwasn ɣ tclḥit d tutlayt taɛibrit d tutlayt talatinit d tutlayt taṣbnyulit :

Taclḥit Taɛrabt Taclḥit Taɛibrit Taclḥit Talatinit Taclḥit Taṣbnyulit
afrran frran فران agadir gadir גָּדֵר afullus Pullus acaqqur Segur
aḥddad ḥddad حداد aẓalim bslim בצלים asnus Asinus lficṭa Fiesta
axmmas xmmas خماس aɣanim qanim קנים alili Lilium sskwila Escuela
agzzar jazzar جزار lmd lmud ללמוד taɣawsa Causa cmrir Sombrero
acṭṭab cṭṭab شطاب abaw Faba acnti Centeno

Kra n izwiln nna mrwasn d tutlayin simitik :

Taclḥit Tigrinya Tafiniqit Taɛrabt
5 smmus ḥammuṣ- ḥammuš- ḥmṣ ḥmš xams- xams-
6 sḍis ṣidiṣ- šɨdɨš- ṣṣ šš sitt- sitt-
7 sa ṣubɛat šobʕat- ṣbɛšbʕ sabɛ- sabʕ-
8 tam ṣummun- šommon- ṣmn šmn taman- θamān-
9 tẓa tiṣɛat- tɨšʕat- tṣɛ tšʕ tisɛ- tisʕ-

Aswuri s waddad amaruzsnfl

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Tasnamkt n ismawn tiwtmaninsnfl

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Imqqimn inimannsnfl

Llan kraḍ tigrummawin n imqqimn inimann:

  • Imzirgn
  • Iklitikn n tɣawsiwin usridn
  • Uḍfiṛn

Abla mayad, llan daɣ sin tigrummawin inafuɣn nna ɣ llan imqqimn ilan uḍfiṛn (abla i umzwaru amyiwn):

  • Iklitikn n tɣawsiwin arusridn
  • Ismmudn imalan

Tawsit tettuymla ɣ tis snat tamyiwnt d tis snat d tis kṛaḍt tamagutt. Tawsit ur tettuymla ɣ tis kṛaḍt tamyiwnt d tamzwarut tamagutt. Tawsit ur jju ittuymla ɣ umzwaru amyiwn.

Iklitikn n tɣawsa tusridt
 
Taɣawsa tusridt
clitics
Uḍfiṛn
 
Taɣawsa tarusridt
Iklitikn
Imili
Ismmudn
1 sg. nkki(n) yyi V-Ø / C-i yyi V nw / C inw
2 sg.m. kyyi(n) k -k a-k nn-k
sg.f. kmmi(n) km -m a-m nn-m
3 sg.m. ntta(n) t -s a-s nn-s
sg.f. nttat tt / stt
1 pl.m nkkʷni(n) -nɣ a-ɣ nnɣ
pl.f nkkʷnti(n)
2 pl.m. kʷnni(n) kʷn V-wn / C-un a-wn nn-un
pl.f. kʷnnimti(n) kʷnt V-wnt / C-unt a-wnt nn-unt
3 pl.m. nttni(n) tn -sn a-sn nn-sn
pl.f. nttnti(n) tnt -snt a-snt nn-snt
∅ = walu amurfim

Amawalsnfl

Iɣbulasnfl

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manmk a rad skrɣ ?

Tiguriwin turḍilinsnfl

Tagurt turḍilt taqburt akkʷ nna ittwssann d tiyni (cf. Tamaceɣt tehäyne, Taɣdimst aβēna), zɣ Tamiṣṛit-taqubṭit (cf. Taqubṭit bnne, beni, benni). Tkka tt inn tfuniqt-tabuniqt, tutlayt n ugafa utrim, ar tettyusawal ɣ kra n igzzumn n tfriqt n ugafa, slawan akkʷ g tuns tatrart, ar tasuta tis 5 Ḍart n tlalit n Ɛisa. Tiguriwin turḍilin tibuniqin da tn nttafa ɣ mnnawt tutlayin timaziɣin, gratsnt Tacelḥiyt. Imdyatn:

agadir (cf. Hebrew gādēr 'wall')
aẓalim (cf. Hebrew beṣālîm)
aɣanim (cf. Hebrew qānîm)
tifst 'flax, linen' (Taclḥiyt tazratrart, cf. Hebrew pišt- )

Irwas is iga umyag lmd ula ntta urḍil tabuniqt (cf. Hebrew). Irwas is d ikcm ism uday s tutlayin timaziɣin zg tutlayt taramayt lli s sawaln udayn imzwagn imzwura ɣ Tfriqt n Ugafa (cf. yūdāy-ā Taramayt-Tasiryant mgl. yehûdî Taɛibrit, yahūdī Taɛṛabt; Ism aramay ad tkka tguri tagrikt ἰουδαῖος, d tlatint iūdaeus). Illa ma mi umann uṭṭunn zg 5 ar 9 is gan urḍiln isamiyn. Igdazaln g Tfuniqt-tabuniqt d Tɛṛabt ur gisn yuman is d nttni ad iga aɣablu nnsn. Ha asmzazal:

Taclḥiyt Tigrinya Tafuniqt Taɛṛabt
5 semmus ḥammuš- ḥmš xams-
6 sḍis šɨdɨš- šš sitt- (Amḍan amsuds: sādis)
7 sa šobʕat- šbʕ sabʕ-
8 tam, ttam šommon- šmn θamān-
9 tẓẓa, ttẓa tɨšʕat- tšʕ tisʕ-

Yat tmzarayt n Tlatint/Taṛumanst tkka tt inn ar tettyusawal g ugafa n Lmɣrib ar yan wakud yaẓn i ukcam n lislam. Turḍilin sg tlatint d Tṛumanst tazaykut gisnt:

afullus 'cock, rooster' (pullus 'young animal, chick' Talatint)
afurnu 'oven' (smzl. fornus Talatint)
asnus 'ass's foal' (asinus 'ass' Talatint)
fliyyu 'pennyroyal' (plant, smzl. pulēium Talatint)
ikikr 'chickpeas' (cicer Talatint)
tafala 'peel, spade' (pāla Talatint)
talima 'file' (līma Talatint)
tayuga 'yoke, pair' (asuf n tṛumanst tazaykut *iuga, smzl. amagut alatin iuga, asuf alatin iugum)
urti 'garden' (taṛumanst tazaykut, smzl. hortus Talatint)
taɣawsa 'thing' (causa Talatint)
takira 'wax' (cēra}- Talatint)
tibitas 'beets' (betas n Tṛumant tazaykut, cf. asuf alatin bēta)
tifiras 'pears' (*piras n Tṛumant tazaykut, cf. amagut alatin pira, asuf pirum)

Ar nttssn tiguriwin d ikkan taṛumant tamatult s ugdazal n s, tin tṛumanst tamatult ar tturruy š, tin tṛumanst tazaykut da ttɣama s. Ittyuɣal Is d kcmnt turḍilin ad zg Tibiru-ṛumanst, lli ɣ didsnt tlla g wawaḍ ɣ Landalus. Imdyatn:

acaqqur 'axe' (cf. segur}- Taṣbnyult tazratrart, securis Talatint)
cmrir 'hat' (cf. sombrero}- Taṣbnyult)
acnti 'rye' (cf. centeno Taṣblyunt; šəntin g tcelḥiyt tamuẓunt, yat talɣa lli ynyarnan s umagut ticentin nna zɣ daɣ ittyuskar usuf ašnti).

Tutlayin timdruginsnfl

Ibdr Destaing yat tutlayt tamdrugt igan s yism inmantadubirt nna s sawaln «kra n middn ɣ Sus, slawann akkʷ tarwa d ayt Sidi Ḥmad u Musa». Ifka yan umdya: is kn tusat inman? "is da tsawalt tutlayt tamdrugt ?"

Sin tutlayin timdrugn ttuysawaln dar timɣarin ticlḥiyin ad inna Lahrouchi d Ségéral (2009). Ar as ttinin tagnawt (id ikkan agnaw "walli ur da isslid") d taɛẓmiyt (id ikkan ddarija ɛəẓmiya "tutlayt tabṛṛanit") nɣ taqqẓmiyt. Ar sxdamn kigan n tizigztt fad ad sntln tutlayt awal amagnu.

Tinidlisnsnfl

Tajṛṛumtsnfl

  • Robert Aspinion: Apprenons le berbère: initiation aux dialectes chleuhs. Rabat 1952.
  • Abdallah Boumalk, Manuel de conjugaison du tachelhit (langue berbère du Maroc), Paris, L'Harmattan, 2003 - ISBN 2-7475-5527-5
  • Abdallah El Mountassir, Initiation au Tachelhit, langue berbère du sud du Maroc. "Ra nsawal tachelhit", Paris, L'Asiathèque, 1999 - ISBN 2-911053-53-2
  • Hans Stumme, Handbuch des Schilhischen von Tazerwalt. Grammatik, Lesestücke, Gespräche, Glossar, Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1899.

Imawalnsnfl

  • Abdellah Bounfour & Abdallah Boumalk, Vocabulaire usuel du tachelhit, Éditions Centre Tarik Ibn Ziyad, Rabat.
  • Edmond Destaing, Étude sur la tachelḥît du Sous. I- Vocabulaire français-berbère, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1920
  • Abdallah El Mountassir, Dictionnaire des verbes tachelhit-français (parler berbère du sud du Maroc), Paris, L'Harmattan, 2003 - ISBN 2-7475-3577-0
  • Antoine Jordan, Dictionnaire berbère-français (dialectes tašelhait), Rabat, Omnia, 1934.
  • Michel Quitout, Grammaire berbère (rifain, tamazight, chleuh, kabyle), Paris, L'Harmattan, 2007 - ISBN 2-7384-6004-6

Tasklasnfl

  • Paulette Galand-Pernet, Littératures berbères, des voix, des lettres, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France - PUF, 1998 - ISBN 2-13-049518-4
  • Paulette Galand-Pernet, Recueil de poèmes chleuhs. I- Chants de trouveurs, Paris, Klincksieck, 1972 - ISBN 2-252-01415-6.
  • Hans Stumme, Dichtkunst und Gedichte der Schluh, Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1895
  • Nico Van den Boogert, The Berber Literary Tradition of the Sous, with an edition and translation of ‘The Ocean of Tears' by Muhammad Awzal (d. 1749), Leiden, Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten (Sticht de Goeje, 27), 1997.

Iḍṛiṣnsnfl

  • Edmond Destaing, Textes berbères en parler des Chleuḥs du Sous (Maroc), Paris, Geuthner, 1940.
  • Harry Stroomer, An anthology of Tashelhiyt Berber folktales (South Morocco), Köln, Köppe, 2001 (Berber studies 2) - ISBN 3-89645-381-5
  • Harry Stroomer, Tashelhiyt Berber folktales from Tazerwalt (South Morocco) : a linguistic reanalysis of Hans Stumme's Tazerwalt texts with an English translation, Köln, Köppe, 2002 (Berber studies 4) - ISBN 3-89645-383-1 (riedizione di: Hans Stumme, Märchen der Schluh von Tazerwalt, Lepzig, Hinrichs, 1895)
  • Harry Stroomer, Tashelhiyt Berber texts from the Ayt Brayyim, Lakhsas and Guedmioua region (South Morocco) : a linguistic reanalysis of Récits, contes et légendes berbères en Tachelhiyt by Arsène Roux with an English translation, Köln, Köppe, 2003 (Berber studies 5) - ISBN 3-89645-384-X
  • Harry Stroomer, Tashelhiyt Berber texts from Ida u Tanan (South Morocco), Köln, Köppe, 2004 (Berber studies 9) - ISBN 3-89645-388-2

Ilikitn n imawalnsnfl

Tiɣbulasnfl

  1. Taclḥit - Ethnologue (23rd ed., 2020)
  2. Rhythms and Rhymes of Life: Music and Identification Processes of Dutch, Miriam Gazzah, 2008
  3. Perrot d'Ablancourt 1667: 92-93.
  4. Mouliéras, A., 1905. Une tribu zénète anti-musulmane au Maroc les Zkara. p.25.
  5. Van Den Boogert (1997 : 3).
  6. Delaporte et al. 1844, 588.
  7. (Wetzstein 1887 : 34-35).
  8. STUMME, H., 1899. Handbuch des Schilhischen von Tazerwalt. Grammatik, Lesestücke, Gespräche, Glossar. Pp. v. 249. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung., p.3.
  9. 9,0 9,1 et 9,2 Cunninghame Graham, R., n.d. Mogreb-el-Acksa. London: Heinemann, pp.34, 96.
  10. Febrayer.com - Cluḥ d Taclḥit, Maṣmuda d Imṣmudn.
  11. Agrour, R., 2012. Contribution à l’étude d’un mot voyageur : Chleuh. Cahiers d'études africaines, 52(208), pp.767-811.
  12. Stumme (1899: 3); Laoust (1936: v).
  13. Fox et Abu-Talib (1966: 155), Colin (1993: 976).
  14. Awzal, Baḥr al-Dumūʿ , v.5 (édition dans van den Boogert 1997).
  15. RGPH 2014 - Site HCP
  16. Aljazeera.net - Jadal ḥawla ɛadad annaṭiqin bil amaziɣya
  17. Stroomer (2001a:183n1), Stroomer (2008:289n1).
  18. Stumme (1899: 4).
  19. Boukous (1977: 126).
  20. Galand (1988, 2.1).
  21. Tamzarayt n Igcan, imkn d tiyyaḍ, ɣ kigan n tkkal ar ttarint iznaɣritn inṣliyn (Galand 1988, 2.9). Nẓḍaṛ daɣ ad nẓṛ aya awd ɣ iḍṛiṣn n warratn izratrarn (van den Boogert 1997:249).
  22. Applegate (1958), Dell & Elmedlaoui (1985, 2002), Ridouane (2008).
  23. Amukris ad issgdl t Dixon (2010:284) s uzday d tutlayin yaḍn.
  24. Van den Boogert (1997:247–8), s imdyatn.
  25. Ẓṛ Van den Boogert (1997:244–245).

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imgradn imanawn umniḍnsnfl

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